Resistance mechanism to bensulfuron-methyl in biotypes of Scirpus mucronatus L. collected in Chilean rice fields.
ABSTRACT Two biotypes of Scirpus mucronatus not controlled with the herbicide bensulfuron-methyl in rice fields were characterized by using field, greenhouse, and laboratory techniques. Seeds were collected in two rice areas [Parral (R1) and Linares (R2)], where bensulfuron-methyl at 150 g ha(-1) did not control S. mucronatus. A third seed sample of S. mucronatus susceptible (S) to bensulfuron-methyl was collected in an area from Chile. The dose-response studies confirmed resistance to bensulfuron-methyl in R1 and R2 S. mucronatus biotypes; ratios (R/S) of the ED(50) values of resistant to susceptible plants were 1719 and 1627 for R1 and R2, respectively. The biotype R1 also showed strong cross-resistance (ratios ranging from 1719 to 43) to sulfonylureas (bensulfuron-methyl, cyclosulfamuron, ethoxysulfuron, imazosulfuron, and pyrazosulfuron-ethyl) and imidazolinone (imazamox) and a weak cross-resistance (ratio of 1.705) to pyrimidinyloxybenzoates (bispyribac-sodium), all ALS inhibiting herbicides used in rice. Absorption, translocation, and metabolism results did not explain the differences in susceptibility among biotypes. The in vitro assays confirmed cross-resistance to all ALS inhibitors tested and the level of cross resistance was bensulfuron-methyl > imazosulfuron ≫ cyclosulfamuron ≫ pyrazosulfuron-ethyl ≫ ethoxysulfuron > imazamox ≫ bispiribac-sodium. Molecular studies demonstrated that the Pro197His amino acid substitution on the ALS enzyme could explain the loss of affinity for the ALS-inhibiting herbicides.
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ABSTRACT: Bensulfuron-methyl (BSM) is a new kind of sulfonylurea herbicide widely used to control broad-leaf weeds in rice paddies. The aim of this work was to study BSM biodegradation in paddy soils with BSM-degrading bacteria Bacillus megaterium L1 and Brevibacterium sp. BH and its effect on the structures of soil bacterial community. More than 90 % of BSM could be degraded in paddy soils with 0.0355 mg kg⁻¹ BSM concentration. Addition of BSM-degrading bacterial strains Bacillus megaterium L1 into BSM contaminated paddy soil could have the half-life time of BSM compared to treatment without Bacillus megaterium L1 inoculation. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and principle component analysis indicated that the diversity of the soil microbial community structure changed along with the addition of BSM, which recovered at the end of the experiment (5 weeks). Addition of BSM-degrading bacteria Bacillus megaterium L1 enriched the diversity of soil microbial community structure in paddy soils. This study provides information on the biodegradation of BSM and BSM's influences on the soil bacteria microbial community structures.Ecotoxicology 03/2012; 21(5):1281-90. · 2.77 Impact Factor