Nephrogenic adenoma is a benign lesion that may occur at any site of the genitourinary tract, usually in association with previous urothelial injuries. Although its pathogenesis is still debated, recent studies seem to confirm its derivation from renal tubular epithelium, rather than from a metaplastic process of urothelium. In addition to its uncertain origin, there can be diagnostic difficulty in distinguishing nephrogenic adenoma from prostatic adenocarcinoma, particularly with lesions arising in the prostatic urethra. So far, immunohistochemical stains are often needed to make such a distinction, and several markers have been proposed, often with controversial results. S100A1 is a calcium binding protein that has been recently reported to be expressed in renal tubular cells and in a subset of renal cell neoplasms. Alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase (AMACR), a recently identified prostate cancer marker, has also been found to be expressed in renal tubules and in some renal epithelial neoplasms. In this study, we investigated the expression of S100A1 and AMACR in 18 nephrogenic adenomas and in 100 prostatic adenocarcinomas. A strong and distinct cytoplasmic or nucleocytoplasmic staining of S100A1 was found in 17 out of 18 cases of nephrogenic adenoma (94%), but never in prostatic adenocarcinoma. In contrast, AMACR expression was detected in 14 of 18 nephrogenic adenomas (78%) and in 96 of 100 prostatic adenocarcinomas (96%). We conclude that (1) S100A1 is a specific and sensitive immunohistochemical marker to differentiate nephrogenic adenoma from prostatic adenocarcinoma; (2) AMACR immunostaining does not seem to be a useful marker in distinguishing between these 2 lesions; (3) given that both S100A1 and AMACR have been reported to be expressed in renal tubular cells and in a subset of renal cell neoplasms, our findings confirm the histogenetic relationship between nephrogenic adenoma and renal tubular epithelium.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is a commonly accepted belief that cancer cells modify their transcriptional state during the progression of the disease. We propose that the progression of cancer cells towards malignant phenotypes can be efficiently tracked using high-throughput technologies that follow the gradual changes observed in the gene expression profiles by employing Shannon's mathematical theory of communication. Methods based on Information Theory can then quantify the divergence of cancer cells' transcriptional profiles from those of normally appearing cells of the originating tissues. The relevance of the proposed methods can be evaluated using microarray datasets available in the public domain but the method is in principle applicable to other high-throughput methods.
Using melanoma and prostate cancer datasets we illustrate how it is possible to employ Shannon Entropy and the Jensen-Shannon divergence to trace the transcriptional changes progression of the disease. We establish how the variations of these two measures correlate with established biomarkers of cancer progression. The Information Theory measures allow us to identify novel biomarkers for both progressive and relatively more sudden transcriptional changes leading to malignant phenotypes. At the same time, the methodology was able to validate a large number of genes and processes that seem to be implicated in the progression of melanoma and prostate cancer.
We thus present a quantitative guiding rule, a new unifying hallmark of cancer: the cancer cell's transcriptome changes lead to measurable observed transitions of Normalized Shannon Entropy values (as measured by high-throughput technologies). At the same time, tumor cells increment their divergence from the normal tissue profile increasing their disorder via creation of states that we might not directly measure. This unifying hallmark allows, via the the Jensen-Shannon divergence, to identify the arrow of time of the processes from the gene expression profiles, and helps to map the phenotypical and molecular hallmarks of specific cancer subtypes. The deep mathematical basis of the approach allows us to suggest that this principle is, hopefully, of general applicability for other diseases.
PLoS ONE 08/2010; 5(8):e12262. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0012262 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Histologic diagnosis of renal neoplasm is usually straightforward by routine light microscopy. However, immunomarkers may be essential in several contexts, including differentiating renal from nonrenal neoplasms, subtyping of renal cell carcinoma (RCC), and diagnosing rare types of renal neoplasms or metastatic RCC in small biopsy specimens.
To provide a comprehensive review of the diagnostic utility of immunomarkers for renal neoplasms.
This review is based on published literature and personal experience.
The following markers may have diagnostic utility in various diagnostic contexts: cytokeratins, vimentin, α-methylacyl coenzyme A racemase, carbonic anhydrase IX, PAX2, PAX8, RCC marker, CD10, E-cadherin, kidney-specific cadherin, parvalbumin, claudin-7, claudin-8, S100A1, CD82, CD117, TFE3, thrombomodulin, uroplakin III, p63, and S100P. Cytokeratins are uniformly expressed by RCC, albeit in a somewhat limited amount in some subtypes, requiring broad-spectrum anti-CK antibodies, including both low- and high-molecular-weight cytokeratins. PAX2 and PAX8 are sensitive and relatively specific markers for renal neoplasm, regardless of subtype. CD10 and RCC marker are sensitive to renal cell neoplasms derived from proximal tubules, including clear cell and papillary RCCs. Kidney-specific cadherin, parvalbumin, claudin-7, and claudin-8 are sensitive markers for renal neoplasms from distal portions of the nephron, including chromophobe RCC and oncocytoma. CK7 and α-methylacyl coenzyme A racemase are sensitive markers for papillary RCC; TFE3 expression is essential in confirming the diagnosis of Xp11 translocation RCC. The potentially difficult differential diagnosis between chromophobe RCC and oncocytoma may be facilitated by S100A1 and CD82. Thrombomodulin, uroplakin III, p63, and S100P are useful markers for urothelial carcinoma. Together with high-molecular-weight cytokeratins, PAX2, and PAX8, they can help differentiate renal pelvic urothelial carcinoma from collecting duct RCC. A sensitive marker for sarcomatoid RCC is still not available. Immunomarkers are most often used for diagnosing metastatic RCC. Compared with primary RCC, expression of the above-mentioned markers is often less frequent and less diffuse in the metastatic setting. Recognizing the variable sensitivity and specificity of these markers, it is important to include at least CD10, RCC marker, PAX2, and PAX8 in the diagnostic panel.
Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine 01/2011; 135(1):92-109. DOI:10.1043/2010-0478-RAR.1 · 2.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Receptor for Advanced Glycation Endproducts (RAGE) is a multiligand receptor involved in a large number of human disorders. Identified first as the receptor for the Advanced Glycation Endproducts (AGEs), RAGE has emerged in recent years as a major receptor for many members of the S100 calcium and zinc binding protein family. The interaction with and the signaling triggered by several S100 proteins such as S100B and S100A12 have been studied in details and have shown concentration and cell type dependent signaling cascades. The S100 protein family consists of more than 20 members which present high amino-acid sequence and structural similarities. These small EF-hand calcium binding proteins interact with a large number of protein targets and are almost all been shown to be involved in cancer. In this review we discuss the recent knowledge about the role of S100 proteins and RAGE in human disorders.
Frontiers in bioscience (Scholar edition) 06/2011; 3(4):1232-62. DOI:10.2741/223
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