ABO incompatible renal transplantation: a paradigm ready for broad implementation.

Department of Surgery, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD, USA.
Transplantation (Impact Factor: 3.78). 05/2009; 87(8):1246-55. DOI: 10.1097/TP.0b013e31819f2024
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The requirements for potent immunosuppression coupled with the formidable risk of irreversible antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) have thus far limited the expansion of ABO incompatible (ABOi) kidney transplantation. We present a retrospective review of our single-center experience with 60 consecutive ABOi kidney transplants and describe the evolution of our treatment protocol to one that consists only of a brief escalation in immunosuppression without long-term B-cell suppression from splenectomy or anti-CD20. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year graft survival rates for the cohort were 98.3%, 92.9%, and 88.7%, respectively, which is comparable with United Network for Organ Sharing data for compatible live donor transplants. No instances of hyperacute rejection were observed, and no grafts were lost secondary to AMR. In fact, fewer than 15% of the patients experienced a clinical episode of AMR, and rejections were mild. Elimination of B-cell ablative therapies did not result in an increased incidence of AMR. Excellent graft function persists with a current median creatinine clearance of 60 mL/min. The findings of this study and the relatively simple therapeutic regimen used should facilitate widespread application of ABOi kidney transplantation resulting in one of the most rapid escalations in access to organs in the modern era of kidney transplantation.

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    ABSTRACT: Objective Blood group incompatibility in kidney transplants from a living donor can be successfully overcome by using various desensitization protocols: intravenous immunoglobulin, plasmapheresis (PP), immunoadsorption, and double filtration PP. Patients and Methods From July 2010 to October 2013, we performed 10 ABO incompatible kidney transplantation (KT) procedures from a living donor. The desensitization protocol was based on rituximab and PP + cytomegalovirus immune globulin. All patients received induction with basiliximab, except 1 case treated with Thymoglobuline® (ATG) for the simultaneous presence of donor-specific antibody. Tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil were initiated at the time of desensitization and continued after the transplant. Results After a mean follow-up of 11.6 ± 10.4 months, all patients are alive with a functioning graft. The mean serum creatinine concentration at 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year was 1.48 ± 0.29, 1.47 ± 0.18, 1.47 ± 0.27, and 1.5 ± 0.27 mg/dl. Three episodes of acute cellular rejection occurred in 2 patients. There was only 1 case of BK virus infection, treated with reduction of immunosuppressive therapy. The protocol biopsy specimens at 1, 3, and 6 months were C4d positive in the absence of acute rejection. Conclusions Desensitization with rituximab, PP, and anti–cytomegalovirus immune globulin allowed us to perform transplants from living donors to ABO incompatible recipients with excellent results and reduced costs.
    Transplantation Proceedings 09/2014; 46(7):2209–2213. · 0.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Rituximab is a B lymphocyte-depleting agent used to treat lymphoma and autoimmune diseases. Recently, it has been used for desensitization therapy in ABO-incompatible and highly sensitized recipients undergoing renal transplantation.
    Transplantation 10/2014; 98(8):794-805. · 3.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This review of clinical and experimental studies aims at analyzing the interplay between graft endothelium and host immune system in renal transplantation, and how it affects the survival of the graft. Graft endothelium is indeed the first barrier between self and non-self that is encountered by host lymphocytes upon reperfusion of vascularized solid transplants. Endothelial cells (EC) express all the major sets of antigens (Ag) that elicit host immune response, and therefore represent a preferential target in organ rejection. Some of the Ag expressed by EC are target of the antibody-mediated response, such as the AB0 blood group system, the human leukocyte antigens (HLA), and MHC class I related chain A antigens (MICA) systems, and the endothelial cell-restricted Ag; for each of these systems, the mechanisms of interaction and damage of both preformed and de novo donor-specific antibodies are reviewed along with their impact on renal graft survival. Moreover, the rejection process can force injured EC to expose cryptic self-Ag, toward which an autoimmune response mounts, overlapping to the allo-immune response in the damaging of the graft. Not only are EC a passive target of the host immune response but also an active player in lymphocyte activation; therefore, their interaction with allogenic T-cells is analyzed on the basis of experimental in vitro and in vivo studies, according to the patterns of expression of the HLA class I and II and the co-stimulatory molecules specific for cytotoxic and helper T-cells. Finally, as the response that follows transplantation has proven to be not necessarily destructive, the factors that foster graft endothelium functioning in spite of rejection, and how they could be therapeutically harnessed to promote long-term graft acceptance, are described: accommodation that is resistance of EC to donor-specific antibodies, and endothelial cell ability to induce Foxp3+ regulatory T-cells, that are crucial mediators of tolerance.
    Frontiers in Immunology 10/2014; 5:505.