A Randomized Trial of a Church-Based Diabetes Self-management Program for African Americans With Type 2 Diabetes

Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health and Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7426, USA.
The Diabetes Educator (Impact Factor: 1.79). 05/2009; 35(3):439-54. DOI: 10.1177/0145721709333270
Source: PubMed


This study developed and tested a culturally appropriate, church-based intervention to improve diabetes self-management. Research Design and Methods This was a randomized trial conducted at 24 African American churches in central North Carolina. Churches were randomized to receive the special intervention (SI; 13 churches, 117 participants) or the minimal intervention (MI; 11 churches, 84 participants). The SI included an 8-month intensive phase, consisting of 1 individual counseling visit, 12 group sessions, monthly phone contacts, and 3 encouragement postcards, followed by a 4-month reinforcement phase including monthly phone contacts. The MI received standard educational pamphlets by mail. Outcomes were assessed at 8 and 12 months; the primary outcome was comparison of 8-month A1C levels.
At baseline, the mean age was 59 years, A1C 7.8%, and body mass index 35.0 kg/m(2); 64% of participants were female. For the 174 (87%) participants returning for 8-month measures, mean A1C (adjusted for baseline and group randomization) was 7.4% for SI and 7.8% for MI, with a difference of 0.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.1-0.6, P = .009). In a larger model adjusting for additional variables, the difference was 0.5% (95% CI, 0.2-0.7, P < .001). At 12 months, the difference between groups was not significant. Diabetes knowledge and diabetes-related quality of life significantly improved in the SI group compared with the MI group. Among SI participants completing an acceptability questionnaire, intervention components and materials were rated as highly acceptable.
The church-based intervention was well received by participants and improved short-term metabolic control.

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    • "Examples of church-placed interventions include PATHWAYS (W. McNabb, Quinn, Kerver, Cook, & Karrison, 1997; W. L. McNabb, Quinn, & Rosing, 1993), Go Girls (Resnicow, Taylor, Baskin, & McCarty, 2005), and A New DAWN (Samuel-Hodge et al., 2009). Data from the current CHA survey indicated that 94% of respondents reported a specific desire to learn what the bible has to say about healthy living. "
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    ABSTRACT: The church is a focal point for health education efforts in minority communities due to its status as one of the most prominent and stable institutions. This paper highlights an approach for identifying health programming targets in minority churches. Twenty-four churches participated in a one-year Health Ministry Institute (HMI), designed to help churches develop sustainable ministries for health promotion. HMI attendees were instructed on conducting a Congregational Health Assessment (CHA) to identify prevalent health conditions and related behaviors in their churches. Churches collected CHAs over a one-month period. Data were analyzed and results were discussed during a HMI session and used to prioritize health-related issues that could be addressed at individual churches. Seventeen churches (71%) returned surveys (n=887; 70% female; 73% African American). Prevalent health conditions, participation in health-promoting behaviors, interest in learning to live healthy, and interest in health ministry activities were identified using the CHA. The CHA shows promise for health assessment, and can be used to identify health issues that are of interest and relevance to church congregants and leaders. The CHA may assist churches with implementing effective and sustainable programs to address the identified health issues.
    Evaluation and program planning 02/2014; 44C:81-88. DOI:10.1016/j.evalprogplan.2014.02.005 · 0.89 Impact Factor
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    • "The included studies used a wide variety of contexts for the recruitment of non-healthcare professionals, including recruitment from general practices [27,34]; a Department of Veteran Affairs [29]; outpatient clinics [31]; community condition-specific user groups [9]; community centres [32,35]; academic medical centres [28,33]; and recommendations from members of a church [30]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Improved prevention and management of vascular disease is a global priority. Non-health care professionals (such as, 'lay health workers' and 'peer support workers') are increasingly being used to offer telephone support alongside that offered by conventional services, to reach disadvantaged populations and to provide more efficient delivery of care. However, questions remain over the impact of such interventions, particularly on a wider range of vascular related conditions (such as, chronic kidney disease), and it is unclear how different types of telephone support impact on outcome. This study assessed the evidence on the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of telephone self-management interventions led by 'lay health workers' and 'peer support workers' for patients with vascular disease and long-term conditions associated with vascular disease. Systematic review of randomised controlled trials. Three electronic databases were searched. Two authors independently extracted data according to the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Random effects meta-analysis was used to pool outcome measures. Ten studies were included, primarily based in community settings in the United States; with participants who had diabetes; and used 'peer support workers' that shared characteristics with patients. The included studies were generally rated at risk of bias, as many methodological criteria were rated as 'unclear' because of a lack of information.Overall, peer telephone support was associated with small but significant improvements in self-management behaviour (SMD = 0.19, 95% CI 0.05 to 0.33, I2 = 20.4%) and significant reductions in HbA1c level (SMD = -0.26, 95% CI -0.41 to -0.11, I2 = I2 = 47.6%). There was no significant effect on mental health quality of life (SMD = 0.03, 95% CI -0.12 to 0.18, I2 = 0%). Data on health care utilisation were very limited and no studies reported cost effectiveness analyses. Positive effects were found for telephone self-management interventions via 'lay workers' and 'peer support workers' for patients on diabetes control and self-management outcomes, but the overall evidence base was limited in scope and quality. Well designed trials assessing non-healthcare professional delivered telephone support for the prevention and management of vascular disease are needed to identify the content of effective components on health outcomes, and to assess cost effectiveness, to determine if such interventions are potentially useful alternatives to professionally delivered care.
    BMC Health Services Research 12/2013; 13(1):533. DOI:10.1186/1472-6963-13-533 · 1.71 Impact Factor
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    • "Peer telephone support may have potential as a cost-effective intervention [51,52]. Evidence suggests that peer telephone support produces better health outcomes including effects on self-management behavior for patients with associated vascular conditions [46,48,49,53]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Improving the quality of care for people with vascular disease is a key priority. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has recently been included as a target condition for general practices to add to registers of chronic conditions as part of the Quality and Outcome Framework. This paper outlines the implementation and evaluation of a self-management intervention involving an information guidebook, tailored access to local resources and telephone support for people with stage 3 chronic kidney disease. Methods/Design The study involves a multi-site, longitudinal patient-level randomized controlled trial. The study will evaluate the clinical use and cost-effectiveness of a complex self-management intervention for people with stage 3 chronic kidney disease in terms of self-management capacity, health-related quality of life and blood pressure control compared to care as usual. We describe the methods of the patient-level randomized controlled trial. Discussion The management of chronic kidney disease is a developing area of research. The BRinging Information and Guided Help Together (BRIGHT) trial aims to provide evidence that a complementary package of support for people with vascular disease that targets both clinical and social need broadens the opportunities of self-management support by addressing problems related to social disadvantage. Trial registration Trial registration reference: ISRCTN45433299
    Trials 01/2013; 14(1):28. DOI:10.1186/1745-6215-14-28 · 1.73 Impact Factor
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