In this study, the stable consortium composed by Pseudomonas reinekei strain MT1 and Achromobacter xylosoxidans strain MT3 (cell numbers in proportion 9:1) was under investigation to reveal bacterial interactions that take place under severe nutrient-limiting conditions. The analysis of steady states in continuous cultures was carried out at the proteome, metabolic profile, and population dynamic levels. Carbon-limiting studies showed a higher metabolic versatility in the community through upregulation of parallel catabolic enzymes (salicylate 5-hydroxylase and 17-fold on 2-keto-4-pentenoate hydratase) indicating a possible alternative carbon routing in the upper degradation pathway highlighting the effect of minor proportions of strain MT3 over the major consortia component strain MT1 with a significant change in the expression levels of the enzymes of the mainly induced biodegradation pathway such as salicylate 1-hydroxylase and catechol 1,2-dioxygenase together with important changes in the outer membrane composition of P. reinekei MT1 under different culture conditions. The study has demonstrated the importance of the outer membrane as a sensing/response protective barrier caused by interspecies interactions highlighting the role of the major outer membrane proteins OprF and porin D in P. reinekei sp. MT1 under the culture conditions tested.
"Readiness to utilize alternative carbon substrates In contrast to previous studies on microbial physiology under carbon limitation, where chemostats were run at growth rates of 0.01 h −1 and above     , the current study investigated the physiology of G. metallireducens at growth rates below 0.003 h −1 , which might be more relevant for carbonlimited environments . It was expected that such low growth rates might induce an energy-saving mode in G. metallireducens and prevent expression of many alternative catabolic pathways when their substrates are not readily available. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The strict anaerobe Geobacter metallireducens was cultivated in retentostats under acetate and acetate plus benzoate limitation in the presence of Fe(III) citrate in order to investigate its physiology under close to natural conditions. Growth rates below 0.003 h−1 were achieved in the course of cultivation. A nano-liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry-based proteomic approach (nano-LC–MS/MS) with subsequent label-free quantification was performed on proteins extracted from cells sampled at different time points during retentostat cultivation. Proteins detected at low (0.002 h−1) and high (0.06 h−1) growth rates were compared between corresponding growth conditions (acetate or acetate plus benzoate). Carbon limitation significantly increased the abundances of several catabolic proteins involved in the degradation of substrates not present in the medium (ethanol, butyrate, fatty acids, and aromatic compounds). Growth rate-specific physiology was reflected in the changed abundances of energy-, chemotaxis-, oxidative stress-, and transport-related proteins. Mimicking natural conditions by extremely slow bacterial growth allowed to show how G. metallireducens optimized its physiology in order to survive in its natural habitats, since it was prepared to consume several carbon sources simultaneously and to withstand various environmental stresses.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The high complexity of naturally occurring microbial communities is the major drawback limiting the study of these important biological systems. In this study, a comparison between pure cultures of Pseudomonas reinekei sp. strain MT1 and stable community cultures composed of MT1 plus the addition of Achromobacter xylosoxidans strain MT3 (in a steady-state proportion 9:1) was used as a model system to study bacterial interactions that take place under simultaneous chemical and oxidative stress. Both are members of a real community isolated from a polluted sediment by enrichment in 4-chlorosalicylate (4CS). The analysis of dynamic states was carried out at the proteome, metabolic profile and population dynamic level. Differential protein expression was evaluated under exposure to 4CS and high concentrations of toxic intermediates (4-chlorocatechol and protoanemonin), including proteins from several functional groups and particularly enzymes of aromatic degradation pathways and outer membrane proteins. Remarkably, 4CS addition generated a strong oxidative stress response in pure strain MT1 culture led by alkyl hydroperoxide reductase, while the community showed an enhanced central metabolism response, where A. xylosoxidans MT3 helped to prevent toxic intermediate accumulation. A significant change in the outer membrane composition of P. reinekei MT1 was observed during the chemical stress caused by 4CS and in the presence of A. xylosoxidans MT3, highlighting the expression of the major outer membrane protein OprF, tightly correlated to 4CC concentration profile and its potential detoxification role.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The development of industrial biotechnology for an economical and ecological conversion of renewable materials into chemicals and fuels requires new strategies and concepts for bioprocessing. Biorefinery has been proposed as one of the key concepts with the aim of completely utilizing the substrate(s) and producing multiple products in one process or at one production site. In this article, we argue that microbial consortia can play an essential role to this end. To illustrate this, we first briefly describe some examples of existing industrial bioprocesses involving microbial consortia. New bioprocesses under development which make use of the advantages of microbial consortia are then introduced. Finally, we address some of the key issues and challenges for the analysis and engineering of bioprocesses involving microbial consortia from a perspective of biosystems engineering.
Engineering in Life Sciences 10/2010; 10(5):407 - 421. DOI:10.1002/elsc.201000111 · 2.49 Impact Factor
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