Article

Bronchopulmonary dysplasia in very low birth weight infants

Department of Neonatology, Dr. Sami Ulus Children Hospital, Ankara, Turkey.
The Indian Journal of Pediatrics (Impact Factor: 0.72). 05/2009; 76(7):695-8. DOI: 10.1007/s12098-009-0110-5
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The developments in newborn care have enabled many more very low birth weight premature infants to live. The aim of our study was to determine the risk factors for bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) development by evaluating mild and moderate/severe BPD in extramural neonates with a birth weight <1501 g.
A case-control study was conducted between January 1, 2004- December 31, 2006 at the Dr. Sami Ulus Children's Hospital Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. Patients with BPD and without BPD were compared. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia was diagnosed and classified according to the Bancalari criteria. One-hundred and six (106) extramural premature infants with a birth weight <1501 g and admitted to the Neonatal Unit in the first three days of life and survived for more than 28 postnatal days were included. Patients with multiple congenital anomalies and complex cardiac pathologies were excluded. The maternal and neonatal risk factors, clinical features, mechanical ventilation treatment were compared. The principal risk factors for BPD development were analyzed and followed by logistic regression test.
The diagnosis was mild BPD in 27 of the 106 patients and moderate/severe BPD in 29. The incidence of BPD was 52.8%. Fifty of 106 patients had no BPD. Analysis of risk factors revealed that gestational age < or =28 weeks (p=0.019), birth weight < or =1000 g (p=0.007), hypothermia (p=0.003), acidosis (p=0.003) and hypotension (p=0.005) at admission, respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) ( p<0.001), mechanical ventilation therapy (p<0.001), surfactant therapy (p=0.005), higher amount of mean fluid therapy on 7(th) days (p=0.008), nosocomial infection (p<0.001), higher amount of mean packed red cell transfusions (p<0.001) and more than two packed red cell transfusions (p=0.033) were risk factors associated with the development of BPD. Multivariant logistic regression analysis showed acidosis at admission (OR 5.12, 95%CI 1.17-22.27, p=0.029), surfactant treatment (OR 7.53, 95%CI 2.14-26.45, p=0.002), nosocomial infections (OR 4.66, 95%CI 1.27-17.12, p=0.02) and PDA (OR 9.60, 95%CI 2.23-41.22, p=0.002) were risk factors increasing the severity of BPD.
The most important risk factors for BPD development in our study were RDS and nosocomial infections while the presence of acidosis at admission, surfactant administration, nosocomial infections and the presence of PDA were the most important risk factors regarding BPD severity. Presence of acidosis at admission as a risk factor emphasized the importance of suitable transport conditions for premature infants.

2 Bookmarks
 · 
188 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Neonatologists prefer non-invasive ventilation methods for pre-term neonates, who often require surfactant treatment. Therefore, a technology for non-invasive surfactant administration would be highly appreciated. We have developed a Continuous Powder Aerosolization (CPA) system for the generation of a humidified recombinant surfactant protein-C (rSP-C) surfactant aerosol for non-invasive administration to pre-term neonates via bi-nasal prongs. Before conducting clinical trials, safety testing in an adequate pre-clinical animal model is necessary. In contrast to existing pre-term lamb models, this model should use non-intubated animals to include upper airways for safety testing. Pre-term animals should have already a sufficient respiratory drive to breathe spontaneously on non-invasive continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) support, but their lungs should still be pre-mature to be comparable with the clinical situation for the treatment of pre-term infants. The aim of this feasibility study was therefore to establish a CPAP-stable, non-intubated pre-term lamb model for the investigation of safety, efficacy, and pulmonary deposition of a humidified rSP-C surfactant aerosol. For this purpose, 19 pre-term lambs with a gestational age of 135-137 days (term: about 144 days) were delivered via Caesarean section. Four animals died before start of treatment, while the remaining animals were treated via customized bi-nasal prongs with rSP-C surfactant aerosol or humidified air as vehicle control. To determine pulmonary deposition, selected animals received rSP-C surfactant labelled with samarium oxide as non-radioactive tracer. Treatment was started at 30 min of age and was continued for 1 or 2.5 h. Investigations during the in-life phase included observation of clinical signs, haematology, blood gas analysis, and determination of minute volume. At 3 h of age, animals were euthanized and organs removed for histopathology investigation or for determination of pulmonary deposition. Administration of humidified, aerosolized rSP-C surfactant was well tolerated, and histopathology investigation of upper airways and lungs revealed no aerosol-related changes. Mean body weight-corrected pulmonary deposition of rSP-C surfactant ranged from 1.7 to 7.7 mg/kg depending on the duration of treatment and aerosolization parameters used. A trend towards reduced spontaneous minute volumes indicating reduced breathing efforts and towards reduced lung weights indicating less fluid in the lungs of surfactant-treated animals compared to animals of the vehicle control group could be seen. Taken together, a CPAP-stable, non-intubated pre-term lamb model was successfully established and the parameters for the investigation of safety, efficacy, and pulmonary deposition of aerosolized rSP-C surfactant for the subsequent main study were identified.
    Reproductive Toxicology 05/2012; 34(2):204-15. DOI:10.1016/j.reprotox.2012.05.089 · 2.77 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Purpose To present and evaluate a system of high-frequency oscillatory ventilator (HFOV) during intra-/inter-hospital neonate transport. Methods The system includes a charged HFOV (SOPHIE, Fritz Stephan GmbH, D체sseldorf, Germany), an incubator, and E-oxygen/air-cylinders with connections to the HFOV. The test lung was evaluated at the high and medium ventilator settings used for infants to determine the operating time of HFOV. The time required to exhaust the gas supply was checked, and the HFOV was operated until the low-battery alarm sounded to determine the operating time of the batteries. Results The batteries provided electrical power for at least 60 mins, and the oxygen and air-cylinders lasted at least 20 mins. The system has been used frequently for the intra-hospital transport, from delivery rooms to ICU and from ICU for surgery. The system has been used twice for the inter-hospital transport of infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia and pulmonary hypertension to another hospital 45 km away (one hour distance). In one case, the ambulance's electrical power supply failed, causing the system failure during the last 5 mins of transport. However, with the complete check and simulation of the system and the ambulance bulk oxygen/electric supply, the second patient was transported successfully in stable condition. Conclusion The system was useful for intra-/inter-hospital transport of the neonates on HFOV. For the transport time of 60 mins, fully charged HFOV, 2 E-oxygen-cylinders, and 3 E-air-cylinders seemed to be sufficient. H-oxygen-cylinder and ambulance electrical power supply should also be provided for safe and efficient transport between hospitals.
    01/2012; 19(4-4):221-228. DOI:10.5385/jksn.2012.19.4.221
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Studies concerning very preterm newborns are either defined by birth weight (Methods. – Data come from the Nord Pas de Calais EPIPAGE cohort. Every birth occurring in 1997 before 32 weeks or with a birth weight less than 1500 g and transferred in a neonatal unit was included. Two cohorts were defined, one by gestational age (

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
14 Downloads
Available from
Jun 9, 2014