MR Voiding Cystography for Evaluation of Vesicoureteral Reflux
ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: The purpose of our study is to present a real-time interactive continuous fluoroscopy MRI technique for vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) diagnosis. CONCLUSION: MR voiding cystography with a real-time interactive MR fluoroscopic technique on an open MRI magnet is feasible for the evaluation of VUR in children.
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ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: The current gold standard for diagnosing vesicoureteric reflux in unsedated infants is the X-ray-based Micturating CystoUrethroGram (MCUG). The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic performance of interactive MRI for voiding cysto-urethrography (iMRVC). METHODS: 25 infants underwent conventional MCUG followed by iMRVC. In iMRVC, patients were examined using a real-time MR technique, which allows interactive control of image contrast and imaging plane location, before, during and after micturition. Images were assessed for presence and grade of VUR. Parental feedback on both procedures was evaluated. RESULTS: iMRVC gave a sensitivity of 100%, specificity of 90.5% (95% CI: 81.6-99.4%), PPV of 66.7% and NPV of 100% in this population. There was 88% concordance (44/50 renal units) according to the presence of VUR between the two methods, with iMRVC up-grading VUR in 6 units (12%). There was very good agreement regarding VUR grade: Kappa=0.66±0.11 (95% CI 0.43-0.88). 60% of parents preferred the MRI, but did not score the two tests differently. CONCLUSION: Interactive MRI allows dynamic imaging of the whole urinary tract without ionising radiation exposure. iMRVC gives comparable results to the MCUG, and is acceptable to parents.European journal of radiology 12/2012; DOI:10.1016/j.ejrad.2012.10.024
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ABSTRACT: To evaluate the efficiency of magnetic resonance urography (MRU) in pediatric urology. We report retrospectively on 12 children who underwent MRU between January 1999 and November 2001. MRU was performed to accurately evaluate the entire urinary tract because of megaureter, ectopic ureter, vesicoureteral reflux, Y-inverted duplication and hydronephrosis because of pyeloureteral stenosis. T1- and T2-weighted images were obtained in the coronal, sagittal and axial planes. The mean age of the children (8 females, 4 males) investigated was 36 months (range 2-140 months). An accurate anatomical picture of the entire urinary tract could be obtained in all children. The obstructive nature of megaureter could be differentiated. The distal orifice of ectopic ureter could be identified in the vagina. Vesicoureteral reflux into the blind-ending ureteral bud of a duplicated system was accurately identified. Hydronephrosis was demonstrated to be the result of pyeloureteral stenosis. The location of stenoses was easily identified in the sagittal and coronal planes. MRU is an excellent imaging modality for accurately depicting the urinary tract. MRU is superior to conventional intravenous urography because it does not use ionizing radiation, the gadolinium contrast medium used is not nephrotoxic and the imaging quality is excellent, reproducible and not interfered with by gas superposition. Considering the high costs and diagnostic benefit of MRU compared to intravenous urography, MRU should be performed in patients with impaired renal function, in those with an allergy to contrast medium and if anatomic relationships are not clear prior to reconstructive surgery.Scandinavian Journal of Urology and Nephrology 02/2003; 37(1):16-21. DOI:10.1080/00365590310008622
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ABSTRACT: Pediatric imaging has been at the forefront of radiology innovation since the days of Roentgen. In the past 2 decades, evolving computer technology and sophisticated software algorithms have rapidly advanced how pediatric radiologic examinations are acquired and displayed, interpreted and communicated, and stored and retrieved. Cost-effective use of this state of the art technology requires fundamental knowledge of the modalities, workstations, and informatics that guide advanced pediatric imaging in the current digital era. Equally important is an understanding of the advanced clinical applications and evidence supporting this use. In the first part of this review article, after a brief introduction and historical overview, technical principles are discussed. This is followed by a review of advanced clinical applications for fetal, cardiovascular, central nervous system, neck, thoracic, gastrointestinal, genitourinary, musculoskeletal, and virtual-autopsy imaging.Seminars in Ultrasound CT and MRI 04/2010; 31(2):171-93. DOI:10.1053/j.sult.2010.01.003