ACE inhibition promotes upregulation of endothelial progenitor cells and neoangiogenesis in cardiac pressure overload.
ABSTRACT Inhibition of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) prevents maladaptive cardiac remodelling. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) from the bone marrow contribute to endothelial repair and neovascularization, effects that are potentially important during cardiac remodelling. We hypothesized that ACE inhibitors may exert beneficial effects during pressure-induced myocardial hypertrophy by regulating progenitor cell function.
In C57/Bl6 mice, development of cardiac hypertrophy induced by transaortic constriction (TAC) for 5 weeks was reduced by ramipril, 5 mg/kg p.o., independent of blood pressure lowering. Ramipril prevented TAC-induced apoptosis of cardiac myocytes and endothelial cells. On day 1 after TAC, upregulation of Sca-1(pos)/KDR(pos) EPC was observed, which was further increased by ramipril. EPC were persistently elevated in the TAC mice receiving vehicle treatment but not in the ramipril group after 5 weeks. These effects were independent of hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha mRNA and protein expression. The ACE inhibitor but not TAC improved the migratory capacity of DiLDL(pos) EPC. Increased cardiac afterload induced upregulation of extracardiac neoangiogenesis. This effect was enhanced by ACE inhibition. Ramipril but not TAC markedly increased cardiac capillary density determined by the ratio of CD31(pos) cells to cardiomyocytes. Bone marrow transplantation studies revealed that TAC increased the percentage of bone marrow-derived GFP(pos) endothelial cells in the myocardium, and ramipril made this effect more pronounced.
ACE inhibition prevents pressure-induced maladaptive cardiac hypertrophy and increases intra- and extracardiac neoangiogenesis associated with the upregulation of EPC and amelioration of EPC migration. The regulation of progenitor cells from the bone marrow identifies a novel effect of ACE inhibitors during cardiac remodelling.
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ABSTRACT: Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is characterized by remodeling of both myocyte and interstitial compartments of the heart. The aim of this investigation was to study the effects of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition on alterations in the composition of the interstitium in chronic pressure-overload hypertrophy. LVH was induced in weanling rats by banding the ascending aorta. Animals with aortic banding received either vehicle (n = 20), hydralazine (20 mg/kg per day, n = 20), or the ACE inhibitor ramipril (10 mg/kg per day, n = 20) during weeks 6-12 after banding. Compared with sham-operated, untreated rats (n = 20), aortic-banded vehicle and hydralazine-treated rats displayed substantially increased left ventricular weights and myocyte diameters whereas ramipril significantly blunted the hypertrophic response at the myocyte level (each P < 0.001) as well as the increase in left ventricular weight (each P < 0.01). In addition, image analysis revealed a significant induction of perivascular and interstitial tissue accumulation in vehicle- and hydralazine-treated rats (2.5-fold, each P < 0.0001). In contrast, ramipril-treated rats displayed attenuated interstitial and perivascular fibrosis, both being significantly diminished compared with vehicle- and hydralazine-treated rats (each P< 0.001). Further, vehicle- and hydralazine-treated rats were characterized by elevated steady-state messenger (m)RNA levels of fibronectin (2.7- and 2.8-fold, P< 0.005), collagen I (2.0- and 1.8-fold, P < 0.0005), collagen III (both 2.2-fold, P < 0.001) and laminin B (1.6- and 1.6-fold, P < 0.005). In parallel, the corresponding immunohistochemical signals were markedly enhanced in these groups. In comparison, ramipril significantly blunted the induction of collagen I and III, laminin B and fibronectin at both the mRNA and protein levels. These morphological and molecular differences between the hydralazine and ramipril groups could not be attributed to differences in left ventricular-pressures, which were markedly elevated in all aortic stenosis rats (1.9-fold, each P < 0.001 versus sham). In fact, given that ramipril but not hydralazine blunted the hypertrophic response to pressure overload, the echocardiographic measurements revealed that left ventricular systolic wall stress was higher in the ramipril group (70 +/- 1 versus 34 +/- 0.7 kdyn/cm2; P < 0.02). ACE inhibition may limit both myocyte and interstitial remodeling despite ongoing cardiac pressure overload.Journal of Hypertension 10/1998; 16(9):1345-55. · 3.81 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling and increased matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression and activity have been observed to be relevant in the development of heart failure (HF). We examined the effects of ramipril alone or with furosemide on ECM in a heart failure model. HF was induced by occlusion of the left coronary artery in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Rats were assigned to placebo (n=9), ramipril 1 mg/kg/day (n=11), furosemide 2 x 2 mg/kg/day (n=7) or both (1 mg/kg/day + 2 x 2 mg/kg/day n=8). LV-function, collagen content, MMP/TIMP (tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases) protein- and mRNA-expression were examined in non-infarcted LV tissue. MMP-2/TIMP-4 ratio was increased in HF. Ramipril reduced MMP-2 expression (active form), collagen type I mRNA expression and content and increased TIMP-4 levels associated with decreased left ventricular end diastolic pressure (LVEDP), mortality rate and increased LV pressure (LVP). Combination therapy with furosemide is less efficient with regard to collagen content and MMP-2 (active form) reduction but did not worsen beneficial effects of ramipril on LV function and mortality rate. Furosemide alone had no effect on MMP-2 (active form) expression, collagen content, LV function and mortality rate. Prevention of LV dilatation by ramipril was associated with decreased gelatinolytic activity and increased MMP-inhibition in heart failure SHR. Furthermore, ramipril reduced fibrosis by enhanced interstitial collagenase expression. Furosemide did not show the beneficial effects of ramipril on ECM remodeling but did not worsen LV function. Positive effects of furosemide treatment alone on LV remodeling and function were not observed.Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology 03/2002; 34(2):151-63. · 5.15 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The regulation of angiogenesis in the hypertrophied overloaded heart is incompletely understood. Bone-marrow-derived progenitor cells have been shown to contribute to endothelial homeostasis, repair, and new blood vessel formation. We therefore studied the effects of pressure overload on angiogenesis and progenitor cells. Pressure overload induced by transaortic constriction (TAC, C57/Bl6 mice, 360 microm for 35 days) increased left ventricular (LV) systolic pressure, the ratio of heart weight to tibia length, cardiomyocyte diameters, and cardiac apoptosis and fibrosis compared to sham-operated mice. In the TAC group, the number of cycling Ki67 pos cells increased from none to 0.1 +/- 0.02% in cardiomyocytes and from 0.17 +/- 0.02% to 0.65 +/- 0.1% in non-cardiomyocytes, P < 0.001. stem cell antigen 1(pos)/vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 pos endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) increased to 210 +/- 25% in the blood and to 196 +/- 21% in the bone marrow (P < 0.01). TAC upregulated cultured spleen-derived DiLDL pos/lectin pos EPC to 221 +/- 37%, P < 0.001. Cardiac hypertrophy and upregulation of EPC secondary to cardiac pressure overload were associated with increased extra-cardiac neoangiogenesis (54 +/- 12% increase, P < 0.05). In endothelial nitric oxide synthase double knockout mice, the upregulation of EPC by TAC was abolished. Maladaptive myocardial remodelling in TAC mice was characterized by a reduction of CD31 pos cells. In mice transplanted with green fluorescent protein pos bone marrow, TAC markedly increased myocardial bone marrow-derived CD31 pos cells from 2.37 +/- 0.4% to 7.76 +/- 1.5% and MEF2 pos cells from 1.8 +/- 0.4/mm2 to 20.5 +/- 5.3/mm2, P < 0.05. Pressure-induced myocardial hypertrophy leads to upregulation of systemic EPCs, increased extra-cardiac angiogenesis, and upregulation of intra-myocardial bone marrow-derived endothelial and myocyte precursor cells. The data show that afterload-dependent regulation of bone marrow-derived progenitor cells contributes to angiogenesis in myocardial hypertrophy.Cardiovascular Research 01/2008; 77(1):151-9. · 5.94 Impact Factor