Positron emission tomography-computed tomography in predicting locoregional invasion in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
ABSTRACT In order to clarify the role of positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET/CT) in thoracic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma we investigated its value in predicting locoregional invasion.
Forty-five patients receiving curative esophagectomy and lymph node dissection were included. The relationship between PET/CT findings and pathology results were studied. Correlation between nodal uptake and the modified lymph node staging, which is based on number of involved nodes (N0 = no nodes; N1 = 1 to 3 nodes; N2 = more than 3 nodes), was evaluated.
The mean maximal standardized uptake value (SUV(max)) was 5.09 +/- 4.00 in T1, 14.17 +/- 2.46 in T2, 13.32 +/- 3.96 in T3, and 10.37 +/- 1.94 in T4 primary tumor. The SUV(max) was significantly lower in stage T1 tumors than in stage T2 and T3 tumors. For regional nodal involvement, PET/CT findings significantly correlated with pathology results. However, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of PET/CT were only 57.1%, 83.3%, and 71.1%, respectively, and even lower for detecting nonregional lymph node metastasis. When stratified by the modified staging system, the mean SUV(max) was 0.64 +/- 1.60 in N0, 1.43 +/- 2.08 in N1, and 4.67 +/- 4.32 in N2 regional lymph node metastases, and was significantly higher in patients with N2 metastasis than in patients with N0 and N1 metastases.
Locoregional invasion in esophageal cancer can be predicted by PET/CT. The SUV(max) of the primary tumor helped identify T1 tumor, and the SUV(max) of the regional lymph nodes correlated with the severity of nodal involvement.
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ABSTRACT: There are several controversies in the optimal management of esophageal cancer, including the surgical approach, extent of resection, and the role of multimodality treatment. Optimal surgical treatment strategies include patient selection, accurate staging and risk assessment, selection of an appropriate surgical approach, and the use of multimodality treatment in the management of these patients. In addition, other factors such as hospital and surgeon volume are important in reducing the risks of esophagectomy. In this article we discuss our approach and review the literature on these aspects that have an impact on outcomes after esophagectomy.The Annals of thoracic surgery 03/2008; 85(2):S751-6. · 3.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This study evaluates the utility of positron emission tomography (PET), endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS), and computed tomographic (CT) scans to predict pathologic response and survival following preoperative chemoradiation (CRT) in esophageal cancer. One hundred three sequential patients with locoregionally advanced esophageal cancer, who were treated with CRT and esophageal resection between May 2001 and November 2003 at the University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, were retrospectively reviewed. PET, EUS, and CT were performed before (pre) or after (post) CRT and before surgical resection. PET standardized uptake value (SUV) was defined as maximal uptake in primary tumor. Most patients were male (91 [88%]) with adenocarcinoma (90 [87%]). Pretreatment clinical stages were: IIA (42 [41%]), IIB (5 [5%]), III (50 [49%]), and IVA (6 [6%]). At the time of surgery, 58 patients (56%) had a pathologic response to CRT (< or =10% viable cells). Post-CRT measurements that correlated with pathologic response were: CT esophageal wall thickness (13.3 vs 15.3 mm, p = 0.04), EUS mass size (0.7 vs 1.7 cm, p = 0.01) and PET SUV (3.1 vs 5.8, p = 0.01). Post-CRT PET SUV equal to or greater than 4 had the highest accuracy for pathologic response (76%). Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analysis demonstrated that a post-CRT PET SUV equal to or greater than 4 was an independent predictor of survival (HR, 3.5, p = 0.04). The FDG-PET SUV is the most accurate noninvasive test to predict long-term survival after preoperative CRT and before surgical resection. Post-CRT FDG-PET cannot, however, rule out residual microscopic disease so esophagectomy should remain a therapeutic option even if the post-CRT imaging modalities are normal.The Annals of thoracic surgery 10/2004; 78(4):1152-60; discussion 1152-60. · 3.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The current American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) esophageal cancer staging for nodal status is difficult to interpret and is based solely on lymph node location relative to the primary tumor's esophageal location. Recent reports suggest that the number of lymph nodes involved is also an important factor. We reviewed our esophageal experience to propose an improved nodal staging system. In all, 1,027 patients with resected esophageal cancer from 1970 to 2005 were reviewed. Lymph nodes stations were assigned according to AJCC criteria. Overall survival was assessed by Kaplan-Meier analysis. The impact of location, number of involved lymph nodes, and use of preoperative chemotherapy or radiation therapy, or both, was assessed. Nonregional nodal involvement (n = 17) was associated with decreased survival compared with regional (n = 441) or celiac nodal (n = 73) involvement (3-year: 0% versus 24% and 23%; p < 0.001). The number of involved lymph nodes was strongly associated with survival (3-year: 0 nodes = 63%, 1 to 3 nodes = 31%, more than 3 nodes = 13%; p < 0.001), and multivariable Cox proportional-hazards analysis suggested that the location and number of involved lymph nodes were independent predictors of survival (p < 0.001). We propose a modified nodal staging system that designates celiac nodes as regional and includes number of involved nodes: pN0, no nodes (3 years = 63%, n = 496); pN1-regional, 1 to 3 nodes (3 years = 32%, n = 292); pN2-regional, more than 3 nodes (3 years = 14%, n = 222); pN3-nonregional node (3 years = 0%, n = 17 [p < 0.0001]). This modified nodal staging system better predicts survival than the current AJCC nodal staging system in which survival for pN1 (3 years = 24%) and pM1a (3 years = 23%) do not differ (p = 0.67). The use of induction before surgical resection did not alter the predictive effect of the new nodal staging system. Modification of the AJCC nodal classification system to incorporate the number of involved lymph nodes with regional and nonregional node location simplifies and better predicts long-term survival than does the current AJCC nodal system.The Annals of thoracic surgery 09/2007; 84(2):365-73; discussion 374-5. · 3.74 Impact Factor