Executive dysfunction in children and adolescents with temporal lobe epilepsy: is the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test enough?
ABSTRACT The Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) is the gold standard in the evaluation of executive dysfunction (ED) in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). We evaluated 35 children with TLE and 25 healthy controls with the WCST and with a more comprehensive battery. Among the children with TLE, 77.14% showed impairment on the WCST. On other tests (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Digit Forward, Matching Familiar Figures Test, Trail Making Test, Word Fluency, Finger Windows, and Number-Letter Memory), impairment was demonstrated in 94.29%. The authors concluded that the WCST is a good paradigm to measure executive impairment in children with TLE; however, it may be not enough. Evaluation performed only with the WCST not only underestimated the number of patients with ED, but also missed relevant information regarding the type of ED.