Intrapleural streptokinase treatment for postoperative coagulated hemothorax in a newborn.

Division of Neonatology, Ankara University, School of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey.
Pediatrics International (Impact Factor: 0.73). 05/2009; 51(2):307-9. DOI: 10.1111/j.1442-200X.2008.02800.x
Source: PubMed
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    ABSTRACT: Our objective was to compare the efficacy of adjunctive intrapleural fibrinolytic agents (IPFA) (streptokinase, urokinase) on fibrinopurulent stage empyema and chronic stage empyema in children. IPFA were used in 78 pediatric patients with empyema (36 fibrinopurulent stage empyemas, 42 chronic stage empyemas) between December 1994 and September 2002. Pleural biopsy was done for staging in all cases. Streptokinase 250,000 units in 100 ml normal saline (62 patients) or 100,000 units urokinase in 100 ml normal saline (16 patients) was instilled daily into the patient's chest tube, and the tube was clamped for 4 h, followed by suction. This treatment was continued daily for 2-8 days until resolution was demonstrated by chest radiographs and/or computed chest tomography. Success of treatment was 97.2% (complete response 24/36, partial response 11/36) in the fibrinopurulent stage and 9.4% (complete response 2/42, partial response 2/42) in chronic empyema cases. In one patient with fibrinopurulent empyema, the treatment was stopped due to allergic reaction and pleural hemorrhage; this patient died 1 day later in a septic condition. Although an invasive method, the pleural biopsy technique may be an alternative way of more properly staging thoracic empyema in selected children in whom staging based on radiographic and biochemical findings is doubtful. Intrapleural fibrinolytic treatment is an effective and safe therapy of choice and may have significant benefit in most children with fibrinopurulent phase empyema, except for those with bronchopleural fistula. IPFA do not seem to be effective in children with chronic phase empyema.
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    ABSTRACT: To test the efficacy of intrapleural fibrinolytic therapy in patients with loculated pleural effusions, we conducted an open, prospective, and multicenter trial among five hospitals in Mexico. We enrolled patients with hemothorax or empyema, clotted and/or loculated, that was not resolved through conventional pleural drainage with chest tube and antibiotics in patients with empyema. All patients received repeated doses of 250,000 IU of streptokinase through chest tube. Effectiveness criteria were before and after intrapleural streptokinase (IPSK) drainage, and poststreptokinase radiographic and respiratory function test improvement. Forty-eight patients were studied; there were 30 patients with empyemas, 14 with hemothorax, and 4 patients with malignant pleural effusions without lung trapping. Successful fibrinolysis was obtained in 44 patients, with complete resolution of the pleural collection and adequate radiologic and spirometric improvement. In three of four patients with multiloculated malignant hemothorax with high-yielding pleural drainage, IPSK allowed successful lysis of loci and an adequate pleurodesis was achieved. Only four patients required surgical treatment. The overall success rate in our series was 92%, similar to previous reports. The results in this first prospective and multicentric trial suggest that intrapleural fibrinolysis is an effective and safe adjunctive treatment in patients with heterogeneous pleural coagulated and loculated collections to restore the pulmonary function assessed by respiratory function tests and can obviate surgery in most cases.
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