Semen analysis in chronic bacterial prostatitis: diagnostic and therapeutic implications

Urology and Sonography Primary Care Clinic, Hospital Istituti Clinici di Perfezionamento, Milano, Italy.
Asian Journal of Andrology (Impact Factor: 2.14). 05/2009; 11(4):461-77. DOI: 10.1038/aja.2009.5
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The significance and diagnostic value of semen analysis in chronic bacterial prostatitis has been extensively debated and remains controversial. To investigate the diagnostic relevance of semen culture in the bacteriological workup of prostatitis patients, we retrospectively analyzed a clinical database of 696 symptomatic patients. All patients were routinely subjected to a four-glass test, followed by semen culture and analysis. This allowed to dissect from the database three different diagnostic scenarios, and to compare the 'two-glass' pre-/post- massage test and the standard 'four-glass' test with a 'five-glass' test (four-glass plus post-VB3 semen culture). The 'five-glass' test showed 3.6- or 6.5-fold increases in relative sensitivity and lesser reductions (-13.2% or -14.7%) in relative specificity for traditional uropathogens (TUs) compared with the four-glass or two-glass test, respectively. The area under the ROC curve and Jouden's index were increased, whereas positive and negative likelihood ratios were lower than comparators, indicating that the 'five-glass' assay may be superior in confirming the negative outcome of both standard tests. The five-, four-, and two-glass tests detected TUs (Enterobacteriaceae, Enterococci, etc.) in 120, 33, and 20 patients and unusual pathogens (Streptococci, other Gram-positive species, Mycoplasmata, and others) in 130, 56, and 45 patients, respectively. When patients were subjected to pharmacological treatment, including a combination of a fluoroquinolone and a macrolide, no differences in eradication rates were observed between groups diagnosed with different tests, irrespective of pathogen category. Eradication was associated with long-term sign/symptom remission; no significant intergroup differences in sign/symptom scores were observed throughout a 24-month off-therapy follow-up period. In conclusion, our data support the usefulness of semen analysis in the diagnostic workup of prostatitis patients when this test is used to complement the four-glass Meares and Stamey test. Improvement of microbiological assays conveys important diagnostic and therapeutic implications.

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    ABSTRACT: Chronic prostatitis (CP) is a pelvic condition in men that needs to be distinguished from other forms of prostatitis, such as acute and chronic bacterial prostatitis. CP is characterized by pelvic or perineal pain lasting longer than 3 months without evidence of urinary tract infection. Symptoms may wax and wane and pain may radiate to the back and perineum, causing discomfort while sitting. Dysuria, frequency, urgency, arthralgia, myalgia, unexplained fatigue, abdominal pain, and burning sensation in the penis may be present. Post-ejaculatory pain, mediated by nerves and muscles, is a hallmark of the condition and serves to distinguish CP/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CPPS) patients from men with benign prostatic hyperplasia and healthy men. Some patients report low libido, sexual dysfunction, and erectile difficulties. The symptoms of CP/CPPS appear to result from interplay between psychological factors and dysfunction in the immune, neurological, and endocrine systems. Some researchers have suggested that CPPS is a form of painful bladder syndrome/interstitial cystitis (PBS/IC). Therapies shown to be effective in treating IC/PBS (eg, quercetin) have shown some efficacy in CP/CPPS. Recent research has focused on genomic and proteomic aspects of the related conditions. There are no definitive diagnostic tests for CP/CPPS. This is a poorly understood disorder, even though it accounts for 90% to 95% of prostatitis diagnoses. Its peak incidence is in men 35 to 45 years old. In 2007, the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases began using the umbrella term urologic chronic pelvic pain syndromes to refer to pain syndromes associated with the bladder (eg, IC/PBS) and prostate gland (eg, CP/CPPS). The prognosis for CP/CPPS has improved greatly with the advent of multimodal treatment, including phytotherapy, pelvic nerve myofascial trigger point release, anxiety control, and chronic pain therapy.
    Current Bladder Dysfunction Reports 06/2012; 7(2). DOI:10.1007/s11884-012-0132-0
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    ABSTRACT: Prostatitis is a prevalent condition that encompasses a large array of clinical symptoms with significant impacts on men's life. The diagnosis and treatment of this disorder presents numerous challenges for urologists, most notably, a lack of specific and effective diagnostic methods. To improve the diagnostics the comparison of classic 4-glass test Meares and Stamey, 2-glass tests and 3-glass test was conducted in 177 men suspicious for chronic prostatitis. Four-glass test is uncomfortable both for patients and doctors, and leads to contamination of urine with prostatic secretion. Two-glass test is insufficiently effective too. Three-glass test (three urine specimens obtained from one continuous micturition stream) gives more adequate results and may be used for screening. Three-glass test as screening test with the option of an additional EPS investigation in those patients the final diagnosis of chronic prostatitis has to be confirmed is more convenient for patients and doctors than the standard M&S 4-glass test and "false-positive" (contaminated with EPS) midstream urine results are avoided thus improving discrimination of urethritis, cystitis and prostatitis. Therefore, we recommend the KE 3-glass test as a new standard for screening patients with signs and symptoms of chronic inflammatory prostatitis.
    Minerva urologica e nefrologica = The Italian journal of urology and nephrology 12/2012; 64(4):273-8. · 0.70 Impact Factor

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