A virtual reality training program for improvement of robotic surgical skills.
ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to use a simulated virtual reality environment for training of surgical skills and then to identify if the learning that occurred was transferable to a real world surgical task. The virtual surgical tasks consisted of bimanual carrying, needle passing and mesh alignment. In this ongoing study, the experimental group (n = 5) was trained by performing four blocks of the virtual surgical tasks using the da Vinci surgical robot. Pre and post training, all subjects were tested by performing a suturing task on a "life-like" suture pad. The control group (n = 5) performed only the suturing task. Significantly larger pre and post differences were revealed in time to task completion (p < 0.05) and total distance travelled by the dominant side instrument tip (p < 0.01) in the experimental group as compared to the control group. These differences were specific to the suture running aspect of the surgical task. In conclusion, virtual reality surgical skills training may produce a significant learning effect that can transfer to actual robot-assisted laparoscopic procedures.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Mukul Mukherjee, Jul 07, 2015
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ABSTRACT: Robotic assisted laparoscopic surgery is growing rapidly and there is an increasing need for a structured approach to train future robotic surgeons. To review the literature on training and learning strategies for robotic assisted laparoscopic surgery. A systematic search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library and the Journal of Robotic Surgery was performed. We included articles concerning training, learning, education and teaching of robotic assisted laparoscopic surgery in any specialism. Two authors independently selected articles to be included. We categorised the included articles into: training modalities, learning curve, training future surgeons, curriculum design and implementation. We included 114 full text articles. Training modalities such as didactic training, skills training (dry lab, virtual reality, animal or cadaver models), case observation, bedside assisting, proctoring and the mentoring console can be used for training in robotic assisted laparoscopic surgery. Several training programmes in general and specific programmes designed for residents, fellows and surgeons are described in the literature. We provide guidelines for development of a structured training programme. Robotic surgical training consists of system training and procedural training. System training should be formally organised and should be competence based, instead of time based. Virtual reality training will play an import role in the near future. Procedural training should be organised in a stepwise approach with objective assessment of each step. This review aims to facilitate and improve the implementation of structured robotic surgical training programmes.BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology 01/2012; 119(2):137-49. DOI:10.1111/j.1471-0528.2011.03139.x · 3.86 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The importance of basic surgical skills is entirely agreed among surgical educators. However, restricted by ethical issues, finance etc, the basic surgical skills training is increasingly challenged. Increasing cost gives an impetus to the development of cost-effective training models to meet the trainees' acquisition of basic surgical skills. In this situation, a cost-effective training framework was formed in our department and introduced here. METHODS: Each five students were assigned to a 'training unit'. The training was implemented weekly for 18 weeks. The framework consisted of an early, a transitional, an integrative stage and a surgical skills competition. Corresponding training modules were selected and assembled scientifically at each stage. The modules comprised campus intranet databases, sponge benchtop, nonliving animal tissue, local dissection specimens and simulating reality operations. The training outcomes used direct observation of procedural skills as an assessment tool. The training data of 50 trainees who were randomly selected in each year from 2006 to 2011 year, were retrospectively analysed. RESULTS: An excellent and good rate of the surgical skills is from 82 to 88%, but there is no significant difference among 6 years (P > 0.05). The skills scores of the contestants are markedly higher than those of non-contestants (P < 0.05). The average training cost per trainee is about $21.85-34.08. CONCLUSION: The present training framework is reliable, feasible, repeatable and cost-effective. The skills competition can promote to improve the surgical skills level of trainees.ANZ Journal of Surgery 10/2012; 83(6). DOI:10.1111/j.1445-2197.2012.06289.x · 1.12 Impact Factor