Magnolol enhances adipocyte differentiation and glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 cells.
ABSTRACT The nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gamma plays an important role in adipocyte differentiation. Its ligands, including thiazolidinediones, improve insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetes. We investigate the effect of magnolol, an ingredient of Magnolia officinalis on adipogenesis and glucose uptake using 3T3-L1 cells.
The effect of magnolol on adipocyte differentiation was quantified by measuring Oil Rd O staining using 3T3-L1 cells and C3H10T1/2 cells. And real-time PCR and western blot were used to determine the expression of PPARgamma or PPARgamma target genes, respectively. The effect of magnolol on glucose uptake was performed using 3T3-L1 adipocytes.
Magnolol dose-dependently enhanced adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells and C3H10T1/2 cells. In the early stage of adipogenesis, magnolol induced gene expression of C/EBPdelta, C/EBPalpha and PPARgamma2 and during adipocyte differentiation, it also induced the expression of PPARgamma target genes such as aP2, LPL and adiponectin. In addition, magnolol it also increase expression of PAPRgamma target gene such as C/EBPalpha and aP2 at mRNA and aP2 protein level in mature adipocytes. In PPARgamma ligand binding assays, magnolol exhibited binding affinity to PPARgamma but its activity was weaker than rosiglitazone. At the same time, magnolol-induced adipogenesis was inhibited by co-treatment of GW9662 both 3T3-L1 cells and C3H10T1/2 cells. In mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes, magnolol increased basal and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake accompanied by the up-regulation of mRNA and protein level of Glut4.
Our results suggest that magnolol could improve insulin sensitivity through the activation of PPARgamma as a ligand.
Article: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ stimulates 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 in rat vascular smooth muscle cells.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Glucocorticoids are metabolized in vascular tissue by two types of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (11HSD1, 11HSD2) and thus these enzymes are considered to be important factors that modulate the diverse and complex effects of glucocorticoids on cardiovascular function. The present study evaluated the effect of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) agonist pioglitazone on 11HSD1 vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) and compared the effect with that of corticosterone. Using primary cultures of VSMC derived from rat aorta, we showed that pioglitazone significantly increases 11HSD1 activity and mRNA expression in a dose-dependent manner with EC(50) 243 nM and that this effect is not blocked by RU 486, an antagonist of the glucocorticoid receptor. In contrast, corticosterone had no effect on 11HSD1. Pioglitazone positively regulated transcription of two CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins (C/EBPs), specifically C/EBPα a potent activator of 11HSD1 gene transcription in some cells types, and C/EBPζ, whereas C/EBPβ and C/EBPδ were not changed. In contrast, corticosterone stimulated the expression of C/EBPβ and C/EBPδ, but the levels of C/EBPα and C/EBPζ were not changed. In conclusion, activation of PPARγ in VSMC up-regulates vascular 11HSD1 and thus reactivates 11-oxo metabolites to biologically active glucocorticoids through a mechanism that seems to involve C/EBPα and C/EBPζ. Our data provide one of the possible explanations for PPARγ agonists' effects on the cardiovascular system.Steroids 02/2011; 76(6):577-81. · 2.83 Impact Factor
Article: The environmental obesogen tributyltin chloride acts via peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma to induce adipogenesis in murine 3T3-L1 preadipocytes.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Obesogens are chemicals that predispose exposed individuals to weight gain and obesity by increasing the number of fat cells, storage of fats into existing cells, altering metabolic rates, or disturbing the regulation of appetite and satiety. Tributyltin exposure causes differentiation of multipotent stromal stem cells (MSCs) into adipocytes; prenatal TBT exposure leads to epigenetic changes in the stem cell compartment that favor the production of adipocytes at the expense of bone, in vivo. While it is known that TBT acts through peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma to induce adipogenesis in MSCs, the data in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes are controversial. Here we show that TBT can activate the RXR-PPARγ heterodimer even in the presence of the PPARγ antagonist GW9662. We found that GW9662 has a 10-fold shorter half-life in cell culture than do PPARγ activators such as rosiglitazone (ROSI), accounting for previous observations that GW9662 did not inhibit TBT-mediated adipogenesis. When the culture conditions are adjusted to compensate for the short half-life of GW9662, we found that TBT induces adipogenesis, triglyceride storage and the expression of adipogenic marker genes in 3T3-L1 cells in a PPARγ-dependent manner. Our results are broadly applicable to the study of obesogen action and indicate that ligand stability is an important consideration in the design and interpretation of adipogenesis assays.The Journal of steroid biochemistry and molecular biology 03/2011; 127(1-2):9-15. · 2.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Although thiazolidinediones (TZD) effectively improve hyperglycemia and increase adiponectin, a proinsulin-sensitizing adipokine, they also increase adipogenesis via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ induction, which may be undesirable. Recent safety concerns about some TZD have prompted the search for next generation agents that can enhance glycemic control and adiponectin independent of PPARγ or adipogenesis. Reminiscent of TZD action, a human adenovirus, adenovirus 36 (Ad36), up-regulates PPARγ, induces adipogenesis, and improves systemic glycemic control in vivo. We determined whether this effect of Ad36 requires PPARγ and/or adipogenesis. Glucose uptake and relevant cell signaling were determined in mock-infected or human adenoviruses Ad36 or Ad2-infected cell types under the following conditions: 1) undifferentiated human-adipose-tissue-derived stem cells (hASC), 2) hASC differentiated as adipocytes, 3) hASC in presence or absence of a PPARγ inhibitor, 4) NIH/3T3 that have impaired PPARγ expression, and 5) PPARγ-knockout mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts with intact PPARγ served as a positive control. Additionally, to determine natural Ad36 infection, human sera were screened for Ad36 antibodies. In undifferentiated or differentiated hASC, or despite the inhibition, down-regulation, or the absence of PPARγ, Ad36 significantly enhanced glucose uptake and PPARγ, adiponectin, glucose transporter 4, and glucose transporter 1 protein abundance, compared with mock or Ad2-infected cells. This indicated that Ad36 up-regulates glucose uptake and adiponectin secretion independent of adipogenesis or without recruiting PPARγ. In humans, natural Ad36 infection predicted greater adiponectin levels, suggesting a human relevance of these effects. In conclusion, Ad36 provides a novel template to metabolically remodel human adipose tissue to enhance glycemic control without the concomitant increase in adiposity or PPARγ induction associated with TZD actions.Endocrinology 07/2011; 152(10):3648-60. · 4.46 Impact Factor