Article

Local insulin-like growth factor I prevents sepsis-induced muscle atrophy.

Department of Cellular and Molecular Physiology, College of Medicine, Pennsylvania State University, Hershey, PA 17033, USA.
Metabolism: clinical and experimental (Impact Factor: 3.61). 05/2009; 58(6):787-97. DOI: 10.1016/j.metabol.2009.01.015
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The present study tests the hypotheses that local bioavailability of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) is capable of regulating muscle protein balance and that muscle-directed IGF-I can selectively maintain muscle mass during bacterial infection. Initial studies in C57BL/6 mice demonstrated that increasing or decreasing bioavailable IGF-I within muscle by local administration of either Leu(24) Ala(31) IGF-I or IGF binding protein 1, respectively, produced proportional changes in surrogate markers (eg, phosphorylation of 4E-BP1 and S6K1) of protein synthesis. We next examined the ability of a sustained local administration of IGF-I to prevent sepsis-induced muscle atrophy over a 5-day period. At the time of cecal ligation and puncture or sham surgery, mice had a time-release pellet containing IGF-I implanted next to the gastrocnemius and a placebo pellet placed in the contralateral limb. Data indicated that IGF-I released locally only affected the adjacent muscle and was not released into the circulation. Gastrocnemius from septic mice containing the placebo pellet was atrophied and had a reduced IGF-I protein content. In contrast, locally directed IGF-I increased IGF-I protein within adjacent muscle to basal control levels. This change was associated with a proportional increase in muscle weight and protein, as well as increased phosphorylation of 4E-BP1 and the redistribution of eIF4E from the inactive eIF4E4EBP1 complex to the active eIF4EeIF4G complex. Local IGF-I also prevented the sepsis-induced increase in atrogin-1 messenger RNA in the exposed muscle. Finally, local IGF-I prevented the sepsis-induced increase in muscle interleukin-6 messenger RNA. Thus, muscle-directed IGF-I attenuates the sepsis-induced atrophic response apparently by increasing muscle protein synthesis and potentially decreasing proteolysis. Collectively, our data suggest that agents that increase the bioavailability of IGF-I within muscle per se might be effective in ameliorating the sepsis-induced loss of muscle mass without having undesirable effects on metabolic processes in distant organs.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
97 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Small molecule nonpeptidyl molecules are potentially attractive drug candidates as adjunct therapies in the treatment of sepsis-induced metabolic complications. As such, the current study investigates the use of aurintricarboxylic acid (ATA), which stimulates insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I receptor and AKT signaling, for its ability to ameliorate the protein metabolic effects of endotoxin (LPS) + interferon (IFN)γ in C2C12 myotubes and sepsis in skeletal muscle. ATA dose- and time-dependently increases mTOR-dependent protein synthesis. Pretreatment with ATA prevents the LPS/IFNγ-induced decrease in protein synthesis at least in part by maintaining mTOR kinase activity, while post-treatment with ATA is able to increase protein synthesis when added up to 6 h after LPS/IFNγ. ATA also reverses the amino acid resistance which is detected in response to nutrient deprivation. Conversely, ATA decreases the basal rate of protein degradation and prevents the LPS/IFNγ-increase in proteolysis, and the latter change is associated reduced atrogin-1 and MuRF1 mRNA. The ability of ATA to antagonize LPS/IFNγ-induced changes in protein metabolism were associated with its ability to prevent the increases in IL-6 and NOS2 and decreases in IGF-I. In vivo studies indicate ATA acutely increases skeletal muscle, but not cardiac, protein synthesis, and attenuates the loss of lean body mass over 5 days. These data suggest ATA and other small molecule agonists of endogenous anabolic hormones may prove beneficial in treating sepsis by decreasing the inflammatory response and improving muscle protein balance.
    Shock (Augusta, Ga.) 01/2014; DOI:10.1097/SHK.0000000000000128 · 2.87 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Sepsis decreases skeletal muscle protein synthesis in part by impairing mTOR activity and the subsequent phosphorylation of 4E-BP1 and S6K1 thereby controlling translation initiation; however, the relative importance of changes in these two downstream substrates is unknown. The role of 4E-BP1 (and -BP2) in regulating muscle protein synthesis was assessed in wild-type (WT) and 4E-BP1/BP2 double knockout (DKO) male mice under basal conditions and in response to sepsis. At 12 months of age, body weight, lean body mass and energy expenditure did not differ between WT and DKO mice. Moreover, in vivo rates of protein synthesis in gastrocnemius, heart and liver did not differ between DKO and WT mice. Sepsis decreased skeletal muscle protein synthesis and S6K1 phosphorylation in WT and DKO male mice to a similar extent. Sepsis only decreased 4E-BP1 phosphorylation in WT mice as no 4E-BP1/BP2 protein was detected in muscle from DKO mice. Sepsis decreased the binding of eIF4G to eIF4E in WT mice; however, eIF4E•eIF4G binding was not altered in DKO mice under either basal or septic conditions. A comparable sepsis-induced increase in eIF4B phosphorylation was seen in both WT and DKO mice. eEF2 phosphorylation was similarly increased in muscle from WT septic mice and both control and septic DKO mice, compared to WT control values. The sepsis-induced increase in muscle MuRF1 and atrogin-1 (markers of proteolysis) as well as TNFα and IL-6 (inflammatory cytokines) mRNA was greater in DKO than WT mice. The sepsis-induced decrease in myocardial and hepatic protein synthesis did not differ between WT and DKO mice. These data suggest overall basal protein balance and synthesis is maintained in muscle of mice lacking both 4E-BP1/BP2 and that sepsis-induced changes in mTOR signaling may be mediated by a down-stream mechanism independent of 4E-BP1 phosphorylation and eIF4E•eIF4G binding.
    PLoS ONE 06/2014; 9(6):e99582. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0099582 · 3.53 Impact Factor
    This article is viewable in ResearchGate's enriched format
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Increased AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity leads to enhanced fatty acid utilization, while also promoting increased ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis (UDP) in mammalian skeletal muscle. β-guanidinopropionic acid (βGPA) is a commercially available dietary supplement that has been shown to promote an AMPK-dependent increase in fatty acid utilization and aerobic capacity in mammals by compromising creatine kinase function. However, it remains unknown if continuous βGPA supplementation can negatively impact skeletal muscle growth in a rapidly growing juvenile. The current study was conducted to examine the effect of βGPA supplementation on whole-body and skeletal muscle growth in juvenile and young adult mice. Three-week old, post weanling CD-1 mice were fed a standard rodent chow that was supplemented with either 2 % (w/w) α-cellulose (control) or βGPA. Control and βGPA-fed mice (n = 6) were sampled after 2, 4, and 8 weeks. Whole-body and hindlimb muscle masses were significantly (P < 0.05) reduced in βGPA-fed mice by 2 weeks. The level of AMPK (T172) phosphorylation increased significantly (P < 0.05) in the gastrocnemius of βGPA-fed versus control mice at 2 weeks, but was not significantly different at the 4- and 8-week time points. Further analysis revealed a significant (P < 0.05) increase in the skeletal muscle-specific ubiquitin ligase MAFbx/Atrogin-1 protein and total protein ubiquitination in the gastrocnemius of βGPA versus control mice at the 8-week time point. Our data indicate that feeding juvenile mice a βGPA-supplemented diet significantly reduced whole-body and skeletal muscle growth that was due, at least in part, to an AMPK-independent increase in UDP.
    Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry 02/2015; DOI:10.1007/s11010-015-2357-7 · 2.39 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
32 Downloads
Available from
May 22, 2014