Ginsenoside-Rd, a new voltage-independent Ca2+ entry blocker, reverses basilar hypertrophic remodeling in stroke-prone renovascular hypertensive rats.
ABSTRACT The total saponins of Panax notoginseng have been clinically used for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases and stroke in China. Our recent study has identified ginsenoside-Rd, a purified component of total saponins of P. notoginseng, as an inhibitor to remarkably inhibit voltage-independent Ca(2+) entry. We deduced a hypothesis that the inhibition of voltage-independent Ca(2+) entry might contribute to its cerebrovascular benefits. Ginsenoside-Rd was administered to two-kidney, two-clip (2k2c) stroke-prone hypertensive rats to examine its effects on blood pressure, cerebrovascular remodeling and Ca(2+) entry in freshly isolated basilar arterial vascular smooth muscle cells (BAVSMCs). Its effects on endothelin-1 induced Ca(2+) entry and cellular proliferation were assessed in cultured BAVSMCs. The results showed that, in vivo, ginsenoside-Rd treatment attenuated basilar hypertrophic inward remodeling in 2k2c hypertensive rats without affecting systemic blood pressure.During the development of hypertension, there were time-dependent increases in receptor-operated Ca(2+) channel (ROCC)-, store-operated Ca(2+) channel (SOCC)- and voltage dependent Ca(2+) channel (VDCC)-mediated Ca(2+) entries in freshly isolated BAVSMCs. Ginsenoside-Rd reversed the increase in SOCC- or ROCC- but not VDCC-mediated Ca(2+) entry. In vitro, ginsenoside-Rd concentration-dependently inhibited endothelin-1 induced BAVSMC proliferation and Mn(2+) quenching rate within the same concentration range as required for inhibition of increased SOCC- or ROCC-mediated Ca(2+) entries during hypertension. These results provide in vivo evidence showing attenuation of hypertensive cerebrovascular remodeling after ginsenoside-Rd treatment. The underlying mechanism might be associated with inhibitory effects of ginsenoside-Rd on voltage-independent Ca(2+) entry and BAVSMC proliferation, but not with VDCC-mediated Ca(2+) entry.
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ABSTRACT: Acute ischemic stroke has become a major disease burden with high mortality and morbidity rates. There is a lack of evidence-based medicine confirming the efficacy of common treatments. Panax notoginseng saponins, the main active ingredient of radix notoginseng, have a neuroprotective role in ischemic brain injury, and have been popularized as a maintenance treatment for acute cerebral infarction and its sequelae. We conducted literature searches on the Web of Science, ClinicalTrials.gov, Cochrane Collaboration, CNKI, Wanfang and the China Scientific & Technological Achievements Database and analyzed the experimental and clinical outcomes of studies investigating the use of radix notoginseng in the treatment of ischemic brain injury to improve the understanding of relevant research trends and existing problems. We found that over the past 10 years, China has maintained its interest in Panax notoginseng research, while such studies are scarce on the Web of Science. However, Chinese researchers often focus on the neuroprotective role of radix notoginseng in ischemic brain injury, but there are no large-scale clinical data to confirm its efficacy and safety. There remains a need for more rigorous large-sample randomized controlled clinical trials with long-term follow-up, to determine whether radix notoginseng lowers stroke recurrence and improves patient's quality of life.Neural Regeneration Research 09/2014; 9(17):1635-42. DOI:10.4103/1673-5374.141792 · 0.23 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Introduction: Among the notable breakthroughs in the past two decades of research in natural drug discovery is the identification of saponins (saponins in Panax notoginseng, PNS) as the primary ingredient of Panax notoginseng, an iconic herbal medicine in East Asia. Increasing evidences suggest that PNS have versatile effects against a variety of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), leading to four clinical trials completed and/or underway. There is a timely need to summarize our current understanding of these natural compounds. Areas covered: In this review, the authors summarize and critically appraise the latest literature (mainly since 2008), which study PNS as potential therapeutic agents against CVDs. Furthermore, they introduce the structures of major PNS types, analyze their cellular targets and associated signaling pathways and discuss the emerging opportunities for their clinical applications. A major focus here is on how these compounds affect the cardiovascular system via diverse mechanisms of action. Expert opinion: The authors believe that future research should head in two directions. The first direction taken should involve establishing a PNS compounds library to correlate their functions with structures; the second direction should be by integrating network pharmacology and pharmaceutical techniques in the future development of these natural compounds as new vascular medicine.Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs 02/2014; DOI:10.1517/13543784.2014.892582 · 4.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Ginseng is widely used for its promising healing and restorative properties as well as for its possible tonic effect in traditional medicine. Nowadays, many studies focus on purified individual ginsenoside, an important constituent in ginseng, and study its specific mechanism of action instead of whole-plant extracts on cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Of the various ginsenosides, purified ginsenosides such as Rb1, Rg1, Rg3, Rh1, Re, and Rd are the most frequently studied. Although there are many reports on the molecular mechanisms and medical applications of ginsenosides in the treatment of CVDs, many concerns exist in their application. This review discusses current works on the countless pharmacological functions and the potential benefits of ginseng in the area of CVDs. Results: Both in vitro and in vivo results indicate that ginseng has potentially positive effects on heart disease through its various properties including antioxidation, reduced platelet adhesion, vasomotor regulation, improving lipid profiles, and influencing various ion channels. To date, approximately 40 ginsenosides have been identified, and each has a different mechanism of action owing to the differences in chemical structure. This review aims to present comprehensive information on the traditional uses, phytochemistry, and pharmacology of ginseng, especially in the control of hypertension and cardiovascular function. In addition, the review also provides an insight into the opportunities for future research and development on the biological activities of ginseng.Journal of ginseng research 07/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.jgr.2014.03.001 · 2.30 Impact Factor