Ginsenoside-Rd, a new voltage-independent Ca2+ entry blocker, reverses basilar hypertrophic remodeling in stroke-prone renovascular hypertensive rats.
ABSTRACT The total saponins of Panax notoginseng have been clinically used for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases and stroke in China. Our recent study has identified ginsenoside-Rd, a purified component of total saponins of P. notoginseng, as an inhibitor to remarkably inhibit voltage-independent Ca(2+) entry. We deduced a hypothesis that the inhibition of voltage-independent Ca(2+) entry might contribute to its cerebrovascular benefits. Ginsenoside-Rd was administered to two-kidney, two-clip (2k2c) stroke-prone hypertensive rats to examine its effects on blood pressure, cerebrovascular remodeling and Ca(2+) entry in freshly isolated basilar arterial vascular smooth muscle cells (BAVSMCs). Its effects on endothelin-1 induced Ca(2+) entry and cellular proliferation were assessed in cultured BAVSMCs. The results showed that, in vivo, ginsenoside-Rd treatment attenuated basilar hypertrophic inward remodeling in 2k2c hypertensive rats without affecting systemic blood pressure.During the development of hypertension, there were time-dependent increases in receptor-operated Ca(2+) channel (ROCC)-, store-operated Ca(2+) channel (SOCC)- and voltage dependent Ca(2+) channel (VDCC)-mediated Ca(2+) entries in freshly isolated BAVSMCs. Ginsenoside-Rd reversed the increase in SOCC- or ROCC- but not VDCC-mediated Ca(2+) entry. In vitro, ginsenoside-Rd concentration-dependently inhibited endothelin-1 induced BAVSMC proliferation and Mn(2+) quenching rate within the same concentration range as required for inhibition of increased SOCC- or ROCC-mediated Ca(2+) entries during hypertension. These results provide in vivo evidence showing attenuation of hypertensive cerebrovascular remodeling after ginsenoside-Rd treatment. The underlying mechanism might be associated with inhibitory effects of ginsenoside-Rd on voltage-independent Ca(2+) entry and BAVSMC proliferation, but not with VDCC-mediated Ca(2+) entry.
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ABSTRACT: The cerebrovascular remodeling is a prominent feature of hypertension and considered a major risk factor for stroke. Cerebrovascular smooth muscle cells meet volume challenge during this pathophysiological process. Our previous studies suggest that volume regulated chloride channels may be critical to the cell cycle of vascular smooth muscle cells. However, it is unknown whether the volume-regulated chloride movement is altered in hypertension. Therefore, we directly measured the concentration of intracellular chloride ([Cl(-)](i)) in rat basilar arterial smooth muscle cells isolated from control rats and rats that were made hypertensive for 1 to 12 weeks after partial renal artery constriction (2-kidney, 2-clip method) using a 6-methoxy-N-ethylquinolinium iodide fluorescence probe. The [Cl(-)](i) in isotonic solution showed no difference in all of the groups. After hypotonic perfusion, the reduction in [Cl(-)](i) was more prominent in hypertensive cerebrovascular smooth muscle cells than in sham control cells. Genistein, a protein tyrosine kinase inhibitor, inhibited hypotonic-induced reduction in [Cl(-)](i), whereas sodium orthovanadate, a protein-tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor, enhanced hypotonic-induced reduction in [Cl(-)](i) in both groups. The percentage inhibition of reduction in [Cl(-)](i) by genistein on volume-regulated chloride movement has a positive correlation with blood pressure levels in the 2-kidney, 2-clip hypertensive group, as is the case for the percentage increase of reduction in [Cl(-)](i) by sodium orthovanadate. Antihypertensive therapy with the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor captopril completely reversed abnormal volume-regulated chloride movement in hypertensive rats. We conclude that volume-regulated chloride movement is augmented in rat cerebrovascular smooth muscle cells in proportion to the severity of hypertension.Hypertension 07/2007; 49(6):1371-7. · 6.87 Impact Factor
Article: TRP channels in hypertension.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Pulmonary and systemic arterial hypertension are associated with profound alterations in Ca(2+) homeostasis and smooth muscle cell proliferation. A novel class of non-selective cation channels, the transient receptor potential (TRP) channels, have emerged at the forefront of research into hypertensive disease states. TRP channels are identified as molecular correlates for receptor-operated and store-operated cation channels in the vasculature. Over 10 TRP isoforms are identified at the mRNA and protein expression levels in the vasculature. Current research implicates upregulation of specific TRP isoforms to be associated with increased Ca(2+) influx, characteristic of vasoconstriction and vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation. TRP channels are implicated as Ca(2+) entry pathways in pulmonary hypertension and essential hypertension. Caveolae have recently emerged as membrane microdomains in which TRP channels may be co-localized with the endoplasmic reticulum in both smooth muscle and endothelial cells. Such enhanced expression and function of TRP channels and their localization in caveolae in pathophysiological hypertensive disease states highlights their importance as potential targets for pharmacological intervention.Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 08/2007; 1772(8):895-906. · 4.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Smooth muscle cells (SMC) are essential components of many tissues of the body. Ion channels regulate their membrane potential, the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) and their contractility. Among the ion channels expressed in SMC cation channels of the transient receptor potential (TRP) superfamily allow the entry of Na(+), Ca(2+) and Mg(2+). Members of the TRP superfamily are essential constituents of tonically active channels (TAC), receptor-operated channels (ROC), store-operated channels (SOC) and stretch-activated channels (SAC). This review focusses on TRP channels (TRPC1, TRPC3, TRPC4, TRPC5, TRPC6, TRPC7, TRPV2, TRPV4, TRPM4, TRPM7, TRPP2) whose physiological functions in SMC were dissected by downregulating channel activity in isolated tissues or by the analysis of gene-deficient mouse models. Their possible functional role and physiological regulation as homomeric or heteromeric channels in SMC are discussed. Moreover, TRP channels may also be responsible for pathophysiological processes involving SMC-like airway hyperresponsiveness and pulmonary hypertension. Therefore, they present important drug targets for future pharmacological interventions.Pharmacology [?] Therapeutics 01/2007; 112(3):744-60. · 7.79 Impact Factor