Prevention and treatment of incontinence-associated dermatitis: literature review.
ABSTRACT This paper is a report of a review conducted to describe the current evidence about the prevention and treatment of incontinence-associated dermatitis and to formulate recommendations for clinical practice and research.
Incontinence-associated dermatitis is a common problem in patients with incontinence. It is a daily challenge for healthcare professionals to maintain a healthy skin in patients with incontinence.
PubMed, Cochrane, Embase, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, reference lists and conference proceedings were explored up to September 2008.
Publications were included if they reported research on the prevention and treatment of incontinence-associated dermatitis. As little consensus about terminology was found, a very sensitive filter was developed. Study design was not used as a selection criterion due to the explorative character of the review and the scarce literature.
Thirty-six publications, dealing with 25 different studies, were included. The implementation of a structured perineal skin care programme including skin cleansing and the use of a moisturizer is suggested. A skin protectant is recommended for patients considered at risk of incontinence-associated dermatitis development. Perineal skin cleansers are preferable to using water and soap. Skin care is suggested after each incontinence episode, particularly if faeces are present. The quality of methods in the included studies was low.
Incontinence-associated dermatitis can be prevented and healed with timely and appropriate skin cleansing and skin protection. Prevention and treatment should also focus on a proper use of incontinence containment materials. Further research is required to evaluate the efficacy and effectiveness of various interventions.
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to identify the prevalence of incontinence and incontinence-associated dermatitis (IAD) in Australian acute care patients and to describe the products worn to manage incontinence, and those provided at the bedside for perineal skin care. Data on 376 inpatients were collected over 2 days at a major Australian teaching hospital. The mean age of the sample group was 62 years and 52% of the patients were male. The prevalence rate of incontinence was 24% (91/376). Urinary incontinence was significantly more prevalent in females (10%) than males (6%) (χ(2) = 4·458, df = 1, P = 0·035). IAD occurred in 10% (38/376) of the sample group, with 42% (38/91) of incontinent patients having IAD. Semi-formed and liquid stool were associated with IAD (χ(2) = 5·520, df = 1, P = 0·027). Clinical indication of fungal infection was present in 32% (12/38) of patients with IAD. Absorbent disposable briefs were the most common incontinence aids used (80%, 70/91), with soap/water and disposable washcloths being the clean-up products most commonly available (60%, 55/91) at the bedside. Further data are needed to validate this high prevalence. Studies that address prevention of IAD and the effectiveness of management strategies are also needed.International Wound Journal 06/2014; · 2.02 Impact Factor
Article: An update on diaper dermatitis.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Diaper dermatitis leads to approximately 20% of all childhood dermatology visits. There have been several technologic advances in diaper design the last several years; however, due to the unique environment of the diaper area, many children continue to suffer from a variety of dermatologic conditions of this region. Common causes include allergic contact dermatitis, irritant contact dermatitis, infection, and psoriasis. Treatments include allergen avoidance, barrier protection, parent education, and topical therapies.Clinics in Dermatology 07/2014; 32(4):477-87. · 1.93 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Frequency, persistence and molecular characteristics of multidrug resistant bacteria colonizing inhabitants of long term care facilities are topics of current concern. We performed a point-prevalence survey of 402 residents in 7 elderly care facilities in Berlin, Germany. Inguinal swabs were analyzed for the presence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE), and multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria. Three and six months following the initial investigation, all colonized residents were sampled again and the occurrence of intercurrent infections, hospital admissions and use of antimicrobials were registered. Genetic relatedness of the bacteria was investigated using multi-locus sequence typing (MLST), spa-typing and SmaI/XbaI-macrorestriction analysis. 33 (8.2%) residents were skin-colonized with multidrug-resistant bacteria. MRSA were found in 19 (4.7%) and ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in 16 residents (3.98%). Independent risk factors for colonization with multidrug-resistant bacteria were a high level of care and the presence of chronic wounds. A large proportion of the observed bacteria persisted up to six months and showed a high degree of inter-individual diversity. Outcome analysis revealed that infections tend to occur slightly more often in residents colonized by multiresistant pathogens. We assume that a perceptible population of residents in nursing homes is at risk for individual colonization with multidrug-resistant bacteria as well as healthcare associated infections.International Journal of Medical Microbiology 11/2014; · 3.42 Impact Factor