To provide information of the current prevalence of illicit use of androgens by individuals of the community.
Prevalence of abuse of androgens in individuals of the general population has reached alarming dimensions. Use of androgens is no longer limited to competitive sports, but has spread to leisure and fitness sports, bodybuilding, and nonathletes motivated to increase muscular mass and physical attractiveness. Alarming studies from Germany demonstrated that members of the healthcare systems provide illegal androgens to 48.1% of abusers visiting fitness centers. The new trend to combine androgens with growth hormone, insulin, and insulinotropic milk protein-fortified drinks may potentiate health risks of androgen abuse.
The use of androgens has changed from being a problem restricted to sports to one of public health concern. The potential health hazards of androgen abuse are underestimated in the medical community, which unfortunately contributes to illegal distribution of androgens. Both the adverse effects of current androgen abuse especially in young men as well as the chronic toxicity from past long-term abuse of now middle-aged men has to be considered as a growing public health problem. In the future, an increasing prevalence of androgen misuse in combination with other growth-promoting hormones and insulinotropic milk protein products has to be expected, which may have further promoting effects on the prevalence of chronic western diseases.
"AAS are the most commonly used doping agents in athletes (http://www.wada-ama.org). However, the abuse of AAS is not limited to competitive sports, but has spread to sport amateurs and non-athletes and is considered a serious concern in the society [2,22]. It is therefore urgent to study and establish the awareness of the adverse effects caused by AAS. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cholesterol is mainly synthesised in liver and the rate-limiting step is the reduction of 3-hydroxy-3methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) to mevalonate, a reaction catalysed by HMG-CoA reductase (HMGCR). There is a comprehensive body of evidence documenting that anabolic-androgenic steroids are associated with deleterious alterations of lipid profile. In this study we investigated whether a single dose of testosterone enanthate affects the cholesterol biosynthesis and the expression of HMGCR.
39 healthy male volunteers were given 500 mg testosterone enanthate as single intramuscular dose of Testoviron®--Depot. The total cholesterol levels prior to and two days after testosterone administration were analysed. Protein expression of HMGCR in whole blood was investigated by Western blotting. In order to study whether testosterone regulates the mRNA expression of HMGCR, in vitro studies were performed in a human liver cell-line (HepG2).
The total cholesterol level was significantly increased 15% two days after the testosterone injection (p = 0.007). This is the first time a perturbation in the lipoprotein profile is observed after only a single dose of testosterone. Moreover, the HMGCR mRNA and protein expression was induced by testosterone in vitro and in vivo, respectively.
Here we provide a molecular explanation how anabolic androgenic steroids may impact on the cholesterol homeostasis, i.e. via an increase of the HMGCR expression. Increasing knowledge and understanding of AAS induced side-effects is important in order to find measures for treatment and care of these abusers.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Besides its well appreciated role in diabetes, obesity, and metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance (IR) is associated with smoking, use of hormonal contraceptives, androgens, glucocorticoids, beta-adrenergic blockers, thiazide diuretics, intake of food with high glycaemic index, and reduced physical activity. IR increases serum hormone levels of insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), which are most important mediators of cell proliferation, differentiation and inhibitors of apoptosis. Milk and dairy are introduced as new risk factors inducing IR, the physiologic growth-promoting principle of mammalian milk. This hypothesis explains IR as the underlying pathophysiologic mechanism of all major risk factors of chronic Western diseases. Evidence will be provided which supports that Western life style permanently boosters IR from intrauterine life to senescence. It becomes detrimental when the human intrinsic insulin/IGF-1-axis is continuously superimposed by external IR-potentiating effectors. This hypothesis can be proved by monitoring and proper adjustment of all aggravating effectors of IR. An all-encompassing consideration of IR-inducing risk factors from the beginning of life to adulthood appears to be of crucial importance for the prevention and treatment of chronic Western diseases.
Medical Hypotheses 07/2009; 73(5):670-81. DOI:10.1016/j.mehy.2009.04.047 · 1.07 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is the purpose of this viewpoint article to delineate the regulatory network of growth hormone (GH), insulin, and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) signalling during puberty, associated hormonal changes in adrenal and gonadal androgen metabolism, and the impact of dietary factors and smoking involved in the pathogenesis of acne. The key regulator IGF-1 rises during puberty by the action of increased GH secretion and correlates well with the clinical course of acne. In acne patients, associations between serum levels of IGF-1, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, dihydrotestosterone, acne lesion counts and facial sebum secretion rate have been reported. IGF-1 stimulates 5alpha-reductase, adrenal and gonadal androgen synthesis, androgen receptor signal transduction, sebocyte proliferation and lipogenesis. Milk consumption results in a significant increase in insulin and IGF-1 serum levels comparable with high glycaemic food. Insulin induces hepatic IGF-1 secretion, and both hormones amplify the stimulatory effect of GH on sebocytes and augment mitogenic downstream signalling pathways of insulin receptors, IGF-1 receptor and fibroblast growth factor receptor-2b. Acne is proposed to be an IGF-1-mediated disease, modified by diets and smoking increasing insulin/IGF1-signalling. Metformin treatment, and diets low in milk protein content and glycaemic index reduce increased IGF-1 signalling. Persistent acne in adulthood with high IGF-1 levels may be considered as an indicator for increased risk of cancer, which may require appropriate dietary intervention as well as treatment with insulin-sensitizing agents.
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