Patterns of Recurrent Injuries Among US High School Athletes, 2005-2008
ABSTRACT High school sports participants sustain millions of injuries annually; many are recurrent injuries that can be more severe than new injuries.
Recurrent injury patterns differ from new injury patterns by sport and gender.
Descriptive epidemiology study.
High school sports injury data for the 2005 through 2008 academic years were collected via High School Reporting Information Online (RIO) from a nationally representative sample of 100 US high schools.
From 2005 through 2008, certified athletic trainers reported 13 755 injuries during 5,627,921 athlete exposures (24.4 injuries per 10,000 athlete exposures). Recurrent injuries accounted for 10.5% of all injuries. Football players had the highest rate of recurrent injury (4.36 per 10,000 athlete exposures). Girls had higher rates of recurrent injuries than boys in soccer (injury rate ratio = 1.39; 95% confidence interval, 1.07-1.82). Recurrent injuries most often involved the ankle (28.3%), knee (16.8%), head/ face (12.1%), and shoulder (12.0%), and were most often ligament sprains (incomplete tears) (34.9%), muscle strains (incomplete tears) (13.3%), and concussions (11.6%). A greater proportion of recurrent injuries than new injuries resulted in the student choosing to end participation (recurrent = 2.4%, new = 0.7%). Recurrent shoulder injuries were more likely to require surgery than new shoulder injuries (injury proportion ratio = 4.51; 95% confidence interval, 2.82-7.20).
Recurrent injury rates and patterns differed by sport. Because recurrent injuries can have severe consequences on an athlete's health and future sports participation, injury prevention must be a priority. Knowledge of injury patterns can drive targeted preventive efforts.
- SourceAvailable from: berkeley.edu
Conference Paper: Design and Control of the Active Compliant End-Effector[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The design, construction end control of a wide bandwidth, active end-effector which can be attached to the end-point of a commercial robot manipulator is presented here. Electronic compliancy (Impedance Control) (11) has been developed on this device. The end-effector behaves dynamically as a two-dimensional, Remote Center Compliance [RCC]. The compliancy in this active end-effector is developed electronically and can therefore be modulated by an on-line computer. The device is a planar, five-bar linkage which is driven by two direct drive, brush-less DC motors. A two-dimensional, piezoelectric force cell on the end-point of the device, two 12-bit encoders, and two tachometers on the motors form the measurement system for this device. The high structural stiffness and light weight of the material used in the system allows for a wide bandwidth Impedance Control.American Control Conference, 1987; 07/1987
Conference Paper: Symbolic fusion of hue-chroma-intensity features for region segmentation[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: A method for color image segmentation processing is presented. This method is based upon several linguistic rules which built a symbolic cooperation between symbolic representation of hue, chroma and intensity features. This fuzzy segmentation is compared with a technique using a fuzzy C-means algorithm, and the influence of the choice of the rules is analyzedImage Processing, 1996. Proceedings., International Conference on; 10/1996
Conference Paper: Key factor for new technology transfer on the R&D cycle-time system[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The new technology, process control and cycle time management in semiconductor manufacturing for the R&D (research and development department) is import and is a great challenge task, because of the numerous engineering holds, lot splits, and necessary experimental processes are executing continued. The other challenge is an R&D pilot line exist large variety of process technologies. Therefore, short cycle time for new technology or process to meet customer demand is difficult but must to achieve the mission of the goal. Forecast this goal, we had kicked off a cooperation plan which name is `R&D cycle time system' with R&D members cooperate to complete it. In this paper, we present the system that includes six effective factors that they can easy to find symptoms on a long cycle time, a process or a technology issue by layer, stage or step. We give they name of these six key handling factors as x<sub>-ratio</sub> <sup>RD</sup>,x<sub>-ratio </sub> <sup>FAB</sup>,x<sub>-ratio</sub> R<sup>D</sup>, x<sub>-ratio</sub> <sup>FAB</sup>,f<sub>-factor</sub> and R1<sub>-factor </sub>. These measurements can judge whether delivered a lot on time on a layer, a stage or step and the process and technology is stable or unstable on it. Specially, the measurement value of f<sub>-factor</sub> and f1<sub>-factor</sub> can suggest a process step of technology is maturity or not. They like the eyes on this complex and changeful process flow of the R&D, this system hope to be a useful tool for supporting R&D member to find out the process, technology and cycle time issues about this kind of a tough questionSemiconductor Manufacturing Technology Workshop Proceedings, 2004; 10/2004