High school sports participants sustain millions of injuries annually; many are recurrent injuries that can be more severe than new injuries.
Recurrent injury patterns differ from new injury patterns by sport and gender.
Descriptive epidemiology study.
High school sports injury data for the 2005 through 2008 academic years were collected via High School Reporting Information Online (RIO) from a nationally representative sample of 100 US high schools.
From 2005 through 2008, certified athletic trainers reported 13 755 injuries during 5,627,921 athlete exposures (24.4 injuries per 10,000 athlete exposures). Recurrent injuries accounted for 10.5% of all injuries. Football players had the highest rate of recurrent injury (4.36 per 10,000 athlete exposures). Girls had higher rates of recurrent injuries than boys in soccer (injury rate ratio = 1.39; 95% confidence interval, 1.07-1.82). Recurrent injuries most often involved the ankle (28.3%), knee (16.8%), head/ face (12.1%), and shoulder (12.0%), and were most often ligament sprains (incomplete tears) (34.9%), muscle strains (incomplete tears) (13.3%), and concussions (11.6%). A greater proportion of recurrent injuries than new injuries resulted in the student choosing to end participation (recurrent = 2.4%, new = 0.7%). Recurrent shoulder injuries were more likely to require surgery than new shoulder injuries (injury proportion ratio = 4.51; 95% confidence interval, 2.82-7.20).
Recurrent injury rates and patterns differed by sport. Because recurrent injuries can have severe consequences on an athlete's health and future sports participation, injury prevention must be a priority. Knowledge of injury patterns can drive targeted preventive efforts.
"Increased prevalence in children may be reflective of the specific active populations studied in the review, such as dancers and soccer players. Ankle sprain is commonly experienced, accounting for up to 37% of injuries in children’s soccer . Therefore, this high prevalence in children of specific sporting groups may not reflect the true prevalence across all children and activity levels, perhaps making the prevalence rate more comparable to that of adults. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronic ankle instability (CAI) is a disabling condition often encountered after ankle injury. Three main components of CAI exist; perceived instability; mechanical instability (increased ankle ligament laxity); and recurrent sprain. Literature evaluating CAI has been heavily focused on adults, with little attention to CAI in children. Hence, the objective of this study was to systematically review the prevalence of CAI in children.
Studies were retrieved from major databases from earliest records to March 2013. References from identified articles were also examined. Studies involving participants with CAI, classified by authors as children, were considered for inclusion. Papers investigating traumatic instability or instability arising from fractures were excluded. Two independent examiners undertook all stages of screening, data extraction and methodological quality assessments. Screening discrepancies were resolved by reaching consensus.
Following the removal of duplicates, 14,263 papers were screened for eligibility against inclusion and exclusion criteria. Nine full papers were included in the review. Symptoms of CAI evaluated included perceived and mechanical ankle instability along with recurrent ankle sprain. In children with a history of ankle sprain, perceived instability was reported in 23-71% whilst mechanical instability was found in 18-47% of children. A history of recurrent ankle sprain was found in 22% of children.
Due to the long-lasting impacts of CAI, future research into the measurement and incidence of ankle instability in children is recommended.
Journal of Foot and Ankle Research 03/2014; 7(21). DOI:10.1186/1757-1146-7-21 · 1.46 Impact Factor
"La déchirure musculaire est un événement fréquent chez le sportif de haut niveau et notamment le footballeur  . La blessure musculaire touche alors volontiers les ischio-jambiers, le quadriceps, les adducteurs, le gastrocnémien médial     . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The design, construction end control of a wide bandwidth, active end-effector which can be attached to the end-point of a commercial robot manipulator is presented here. Electronic compliancy (Impedance Control) (11) has been developed on this device. The end-effector behaves dynamically as a two-dimensional, Remote Center Compliance [RCC]. The compliancy in this active end-effector is developed electronically and can therefore be modulated by an on-line computer. The device is a planar, five-bar linkage which is driven by two direct drive, brush-less DC motors. A two-dimensional, piezoelectric force cell on the end-point of the device, two 12-bit encoders, and two tachometers on the motors form the measurement system for this device. The high structural stiffness and light weight of the material used in the system allows for a wide bandwidth Impedance Control.
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