High prevalence of unprotected sex among Finnish HIV-positive and HIV-negative injecting drug users
ABSTRACT To study the prevalence of sexual risk behaviour and to identify factors associated with inconsistent condom use of Finnish injecting drug users (IDUs), and thus to examine the potential of sexual transmission of HIV within and from this population.
HIV-positive (n = 89) and HIV-negative (n = 207) IDUs from the Helsinki metropolitan area were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire. Determinants of inconsistent condom use in the past 6 months were analyzed with logistic regression.
Inconsistent condom use was reported by 63% (39) of HIV-positive and 80% (144) of HIV-negative sexually active IDUs. Unprotected sex was more common in steady relationships (OR 5.6, CI 2.4-13.4). Inconsistent condom use was also associated with recent inpatient addiction treatment especially in the HIV-positive group (OR 15.7, 95% CI 1.7-143.0). Inpatient or outpatient addiction treatment was reported by 72% of the participants. Inconsistent condom use was not associated with age, gender, drug use frequency or markers of marginalization (unstable living, unemployment).
Inconsistent condom use allows for the spread of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections among Finnish IDUs. Addiction treatment programmes should include interventions focused on sexual behaviour to all of their clients. Partners of IDUs should be actively offered HIV counselling and testing.
SourceAvailable from: Jørgen Riis Jepsen
Chapter: Sexually transmitted diseasesTextbook of Maritime Medicine, 2 edited by Aksel Kreiner, Tim Carter, 01/2013: chapter 25; Norwegean Association of Maritime Medicine.
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ABSTRACT: A ship is a ‘hole’ in the water that we put people into. It contains the complex work dynamics of any group working on a common task. A ship is also a ‘whole’ in the water; it envelopes the crews’ existence, not just occupationally, but socially and personally. Living in a series of confined small spaces and moving through huge spaces, the seafarer’s environment is unique and challenging. However working in the maritime is, in some ways, the same as working in any other sector – you have good days and bad days; some who cope well with the job, others who don’t; colleagues and bosses who are easy to work with, and those who aren’t. But there are also distinctive features of the sector - isolation from family and friends for long periods, irregular working hours, and the distinctive working culture of seafarers. In this chapter we consider how the psychological and organisational environment of a ship is related to the health and wellbeing of its crew. We seek to make readers aware of some key features of this relationship, rather than to provide a comprehensive account of the work in this areaTextbook of Maritime Medicine., 2 edited by Carter. T. & Schreiner, A, 01/2013: chapter 28; Norwegian Centre for Maritime Medicine., ISBN: 978-82-999303-0-7
Chapter: Soft tissue and joint diseasesTextbook of Maritime Medicine v.2., 2 edited by Aksel Schreiner, Tim Carter, 01/2013: chapter 29; Norwegean Association of Maritime medicine.