Mechanism of androgen receptor action
ABSTRACT Recent research provides a much more detailed understanding of the role of the androgen receptor in normal human development and physiology, its structure, and its functioning. This review discusses genomic and non-genomic actions of the androgen receptor, as well as their co-regulators. We also explore several clinically relevant aspects of the molecular biology of the androgen receptor and its co-regulators.
- SourceAvailable from: Somayeh Assadian[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The effect of testosterone and its metabolites on learning and memory has been the subject of many studies. This study used the Morris water maze task to investigate the effect of intra-hippocampal injection of 3α-diol (one of the metabolites of testosterone) on acquisition stage of spatial memory in adult male rats. During the experiment we observed that 3α-diol, significantly impaired Morris water maze performance in treated rat's compared with controls. Because signaling event mediated by protein kinase A (PKA) especially PKA (II) are critical for many neuronal functions such as learning and memory, the hippocampus was analyzed for mRNA expression of PKA (II) using TaqMan real time RT-PCR. The results indicated that the transcription levels of PKA (II) were significantly decreased in animals treated with 3α-diol compared with controls. Thus, the findings suggest that administration of 3α-diol in hippocampus of adult male rats impairs memory function, possibly via down-regulation of PKA. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.Behavioural Brain Research 11/2014; 280. DOI:10.1016/j.bbr.2014.11.038 · 3.39 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In this work we investigated the role of testosterone on cellular processes involved in vascular disease, and whether these effects depend on its local conversion to estradiol. Cultures of rat aortic endothelial and smooth muscle cells in vitro treated with physiological concentrations of testosterone were employed. Testosterone rapidly increased endothelial nitric oxide production. To evaluate whether this non genomic action was dependent on testosterone aromatization we used an aromatase inhibitor. Anastrozole compound did not modify the fast increase in nitric oxide production elicited by testosterone. The hormonal effect was completely blocked by an androgen receptor antagonist (flutamide); meanwhile it wasn't modified by the presence of an estrogen receptor antagonist (ICI182780).The possibility of intracellular estradiol synthesis was ruled out when no differences were found in estradiol measurements performed in culture incubation medium from control and testosterone treated cells. The 5α-reductase inhibitor finasteride partially suppressed the enhancement in nitric oxide production, suggesting that the effect of testosterone was partially due to dihydrotestosterone conversion. Testosterone stimulated muscle cell proliferation independent of local conversion to estradiol. When cellular events that play key roles in vascular disease development were analyzed, testosterone prevented monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells induced by a proinflammatory stimulus (bacterial lipopolysaccharides), and prompted muscle cell migration in presence of a cell motility inducer. In summary, testosterone modulates vascular behavior through its direct action on vascular cells independent of aromatization to estradiol. The cellular actions exhibited by the steroid varied whether cells were under basal or inflammatory conditions.Steroids 06/2012; 77(11):1033-40. DOI:10.1016/j.steroids.2012.05.008 · 2.72 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The hippocampus expresses a large number of androgen receptors; therefore, in men it is potentially vulnerable to the gradual age-related decline of testosterone levels. In the present study we sought to elucidate the nature of the relationship between testosterone and hippocampal volume in a sample of middle-aged male twins (average age 55.8 years). We found no evidence for a correlation between testosterone level and hippocampal volume, as well as no indication of shared genetic influences. However, a significant moderating effect of testosterone on the genetic and environmental determinants of hippocampal volume was observed. Genetic influences on hippocampal volume increased substantially as a function of increasing testosterone level, while environmental influences either decreased or remained stable. These findings provide evidence for an apparent gene-by-hormone interaction on hippocampal volume. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate that the heritability of a brain structure in adults may be modified by an endogenous biological factor.NeuroImage 01/2012; 59(2):1123-31. DOI:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2011.09.044 · 6.13 Impact Factor