Serenoa repens for benign prostatic hyperplasia

Center for Chronic Disease Outcomes Research (111-0), Minneapolis Veterans Affairs Medical Center, One Veterans Drive, Minneapolis, MN 55417, USA.
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) (Impact Factor: 5.94). 01/2009; DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD001423.pub2
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), a nonmalignant enlargement of the prostate, can lead to obstructive and irritative lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). The pharmacologic use of plants and herbs (phytotherapy) for the treatment of LUTS associated with BPH is common. The extract of the berry of the American saw palmetto, or dwarf palm plant, Serenoa repens (also known by its botanical name of Sabal serrulatum), is one of several phytotherapeutic agents available for the treatment of BPH.
This systematic review aimed to assess the effects of Serenoa repens in the treatment of LUTS consistent with BPH.
Trials were searched in computerized general and specialized databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, and The Cochrane Library), by checking bibliographies, and by handsearching the relevant literature.
Trials were eligible if they (1) randomized men with symptomatic BPH to receive preparations of Serenoa repens (alone or in combination) for at least four weeks in comparison with placebo or other interventions, and (2) included clinical outcomes such as urologic symptom scales, symptoms, and urodynamic measurements. Eligibility was assessed by at least two independent observers.
Information on patients, interventions, and outcomes was extracted by at least two independent reviewers using a standard form. The main outcome measure for comparing the effectiveness of Serenoa repens with placebo or other interventions was the change in urologic symptom-scale scores. Secondary outcomes included changes in nocturia and urodynamic measures. The main outcome measure for side effects or adverse events was the number of men reporting side effects.
In this update 9 new trials involving 2053 additional men (a 64.8% increase) have been included. For the main comparison - Serenoa repens versus placebo - 3 trials were added with 419 subjects and 3 endpoints (IPSS, peak urine flow, prostate size). Overall, 5222 subjects from 30 randomized trials lasting from 4 to 60 weeks were assessed. Twenty-six trials were double blinded and treatment allocation concealment was adequate in eighteen studies.Serenoa repens was not superior to placebo in improving IPSS urinary symptom scores, (WMD (weighted mean difference) -0.77 points, 95% CI -2.88 to 1.34, P > 0.05; 2 trials), finasteride (MD (mean difference) 0.40 points, 95% CI -0.57 to 1.37, P > 0.05; 1 trial), or tamsulosin (WMD -0.52 points, 95% CI -1.91 to 0.88, P > 0.05; 2 trials).For nocturia, Serenoa repens was significantly better than placebo (WMD -0.78 nocturnal visits, 95% CI -1.34 to -0.22, P < 0.05; 9 trials), but with the caveat of significant heterogeneity (I(2) = 66%). A sensitivity analysis, utilizing higher quality, larger trials (>/= 40 subjects), demonstrated no significant difference (WMD -0.31 nocturnal visits, 95% CI -0.70 to 0.08, P > 0.05; 5 trials) (I(2) = 11%). Serenoa repens was not superior to finasteride (MD -0.05 nocturnal visits, 95% CI -0.49 to 0.39, P > 0.05; 1 trial), or to tamsulosin (per cent improvement) (RR) (risk ratio) 0.91, 95% CI 0.66 to 1.27, P > 0.05; 1 trial).Comparing peak urine flow, Serenoa repens was not superior to placebo at trial endpoint (WMD 1.02 mL/s, 95% CI -0.14 to 2.19, P > 0.05; 10 trials), or by comparing mean change (WMD 0.31 mL/s, 95% CI -0.56 to 1.17, P > 0.05; 2 trials).Comparing prostate size at endpoint, there was no significant difference between Serenoa repens and placebo (MD -1.05 cc, 95% CI -8.84 to 6.75, P > 0.05; 2 trials), or by comparing mean change (MD -1.22 cc, 95% CI -3.91 to 1.47, P > 0.05; 1 trial).
Serenoa repens was not more effective than placebo for treatment of urinary symptoms consistent with BPH.

Download full-text


Available from: James Tacklind, Jul 19, 2015
  • Source
    • "reported positive effects on urinary tract symptoms and flow measurements. On the contrary, a review carried out by Tacklind et al. (2009) concluded that saw palmetto did not improve urinary flow or prostate size. The difference may be the consequence of two high-quality, large-scale, long-term follow-up clinical trials that Tacklind and coworkers discussed in their review. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) is a common condition affecting older men, with an incidence that is age-dependent. Histological BPH, which typically develops after the age of 40 years, ranges in prevalence from >50% at 60 years to as high as 90% by 85 years of age. Typical symptoms include increased frequency of urination, nocturia, urgency, hesitancy, and weak urine stream. Conventional medicines used for the treatment of BPH include alpha blockers and 5-alpha reductase inhibitors. This articles review the mode of action, the efficacy, and the safety, including herb-drug interactions of the most common botanicals (Serenoa repens, Pygeum africanum, Urtica dioica, and Cucurbita pepo) and nutraceuticals (isoflavones, lycopene, selenium, and β-Sitosterol) in controlling the lower urinary tract symptoms associated to BPH. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Phytotherapy Research 07/2014; 28(7). DOI:10.1002/ptr.5084 · 2.40 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "led studies are not consistent in showing a significant superiority over placebo [ Bent et al . 2006 ; Marks et al . 2000 ; Bauer et al . 1999 ] . The problem was recently raised in a meta - analysis , although the evaluation included studies of various durations as well as some on mixed herbal drugs consisting not only of Serenoa repens extract [ Tacklind et al . 2009 ] ."
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We are experiencing a revival of interest in phytotherapeutic agents, both in Europe and North America, especially as a consequence of patients' dissatisfaction with the adverse effects of the medical alternatives. One of the most frequently prescribed and studied such agents is Serenoa repens extract, derived from the berry of the dwarf palm tree. We aimed to review the most important published data regarding this type of treatment for benign prostatic hyperplasia. A review of the existing articles regarding the use of Serenoa repens extracts for benign prostatic hyperplasia was performed. The articles were analysed with regard to their relevance, scientific value and the size of the evaluated series. Multiple mechanisms of action have been attributed to this extract, including antiandrogenic action, an anti-inflammatory/anti-oedematous effect, prolactin signal modulation, and an antiproliferative effect exerted through the inhibition of growth factors. Regarding efficacy, European Association of Urology guidelines state that Serenoa repens extracts significantly reduce nocturia in comparison with placebo. However, the guideline committee is unable to make specific recommendations about phytotherapy of male lower urinary tract symptoms owing to the heterogeneity of the products and the methodological problems associated with meta-analyses. Most of the published trials regarding Serenoa repens phytotherapy demonstrate a significant improvement of urinary status and a favourable safety profile. Also, some authors have credited it with giving a significant improvement in erectile function and decreasing complications following transurethral resection of the prostate, especially bleeding. The results of phytotherapy with Serenoa repens extracts are very promising. More high-quality, randomized, placebo-controlled studies are required in order to demonstrate without doubt the true therapeutic value of these products. Particular attention must be focused on differentiating between registered preparations, which are regulated as drugs, and those considered to be food supplements.
    Therapeutic Advances in Urology 08/2011; 3(4):193-8. DOI:10.1177/1756287211418725
  • British Journal of Urology 10/1994; 74(3):389-90. DOI:10.1016/j.acuro.2013.02.017
Show more