Article

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors for premenstrual syndrome

Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Auckland, FMHS, Auckland, New Zealand.
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) (Impact Factor: 5.94). 01/2009; DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD001396.pub2
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT This is a substantive update of a previous review. Severe premenstrual syndrome (PMS) affects between 3% to 5% of women of reproductive age. Severe PMS is classified under the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders as premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are increasingly used as front-line therapy for PMS. A systematic review was undertaken on the efficacy of SSRIs in the management of severe PMS, or PMDD, to assess the evidence for this treatment option.
The objective of this review was to evaluate the effectiveness of SSRIs in reducing premenstrual syndrome symptoms in women diagnosed with severe premenstrual syndrome.
Electronic searches for relevant randomised controlled trials were undertaken in the Cochrane Menstrual Disorders and Subfertility Group Specialised Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycInfo, and CINAHL (March 2008). Where insufficient data were presented in a report the original authors were contacted for further details.
All trials were considered in which women with a prospective diagnosis of PMS, PMDD or late luteal phase dysphoric disorder (LPDD) were randomised to receive SSRIs or placebo for the treatment of premenstrual syndrome in a blinded trial.
Forty randomised controlled trials were identified which reported the use of SSRIs in the management of PMS. Fifty-six trials were excluded. The review authors extracted the data independently and estimated standardised mean differences for continuous outcomes.
Due to heterogeneity, analyses were subgrouped into change and absolute scores. The primary analysis of reduction in overall symptomatology included data on 2294 women with premenstrual syndrome. SSRIs were found to be highly effective in treating the premenstrual symptoms (SMD -0.53, 95% CI 0.68 to -0.39; P < 0.00001). Secondary analysis showed that they were effective in treating physical (SMD -0.34, 95% CI -0.45 to -0.22; P < 0.00001), functional (SMD -0.30, 95% CI -0.43 to -0.17; P < 0.00001), and behavioural symptoms (SMD -0.41, 95% CI -0.53 to -0.29; P < 0.00001). Luteal phase only and continuous administration were both effective and there was no influence of a placebo run-in period on reduction in symptoms. All SSRIs (fluoxetine, paroxetine, sertraline, fluvoxamine, citalopram, and clomipramine) were effective in reducing premenstrual symptoms. Withdrawals due to side effects were twice as likely to occur in the treatment group (OR 2.18, 95% CI 1.62 to 2.92; P < 0.00001).
The evidence supports the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in the management of severe premenstrual syndrome.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
172 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: With a prevalence of 3 to 8% among women of reproductive age, severe premenstrual symptoms are very common. Symptoms range from emotional and cognitive to physical changes. Severe symptoms (that is, premenstrual syndrome) can have a strong impact on everyday functioning and quality of life. Impairment can be as serious as that of dysthymic disorders. Many affected women receive either no treatment at all or are unsatisfied with their treatment. Although there is some evidence for the reduction of distress through cognitive behavioural therapy, there are only a small number of randomised controlled trials carefully investigating the efficacy of this psychotherapeutic approach. Thus, this study aims to evaluate the efficacy of a cognitive behavioural self-help treatment for women suffering from premenstrual syndrome.Methods/design: The study is conducted as a randomised controlled trial. The complex diagnostic assessment includes the completion of a symptom diary over two consecutive cycles and a telephone interview. Eligible women are randomly assigned to either a treatment or a wait-list control group. The intervention is based on cognitive behavioural therapy principles and is provided via the internet. It consists of 14 different modules on which participants work over 8 consecutive weeks. In addition to written information, participants receive email feedback from a clinical psychologist on a weekly basis. Participants assigned to the wait-list receive the treatment after the end of the waiting period (8 weeks). The primary outcome measure is the Premenstrual Syndrome Impairment Measure. Secondary outcomes include the Premenstrual Syndrome Coping Measure, the Short-Form Social Support Questionnaire, the Questionnaire for the Assessment of Relationship Quality, and the Perceived Stress Scale. Data is collected during the premenstrual (luteal) phase at pre-treatment, post-treatment, and 6-month follow-up. So far, there is no study investigating internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy for premenstrual syndrome. The programme approaches the problem of high prevalence in combination with severe impairment and insufficient treatment options.Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01961479, 9 October 2013.
    Trials 12/2014; 15(1):472. DOI:10.1186/1745-6215-15-472 · 2.12 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The menstrual cycle has attracted research interest ever since the 1930s. For many researchers the menstrual cycle is an excellent model of ovarian steroid influence on emotion, behavior, and cognition. Over the past years methodological improvements in menstrual cycle studies have been noted, and this review summarizes the findings of methodologically sound menstrual cycle studies in healthy women. Whereas the predominant hypotheses of the cognitive field state that sexually dimorphic cognitive skills that favor men are improved during menstrual cycle phases with low estrogen and that cognitive skills that favor women are improved during cycle phases with increased estrogen and/or progesterone, this review has not found sufficient evidence to support any of these hypotheses. Mental rotation has gained specific interest in this aspect, but a meta-analysis yielded a standardized mean difference in error rate of 1.61 (95% CI −0.35 to 3.57), suggesting, at present, no favor of an early follicular phase improvement in mental rotation performance. Besides the sexually dimorphic cognitive skills, studies exploring menstrual cycle effects on tasks that probe prefrontal cortex function, for instance verbal or spatial working memory, have also been reviewed. While studies thus far are few, results at hand suggest improved performance at times of high estradiol levels. Menstrual cycle studies on emotional processing, on the other hand, tap into the emotional disorders of the luteal phase, and may be of relevance for women with premenstrual disorders. Although evidence at present is limited, it is suggested that emotion recognition, consolidation of emotional memories, and fear extinction is modulated by the menstrual cycle in women. With the use of functional magnetic resonance imaging, several studies report changes in brain reactivity across the menstrual cycle, most notably increased amygdala reactivity in the luteal phase. Thus, to the extent that behavioral changes have been demonstrated over the course of the menstrual cycle, the best evidence suggests that differences in sexually dimorphic tasks are small and difficult to replicate. However, emotion-related changes are more consistently found, and are better associated with progesterone than with estradiol such that high progesterone levels are associated with increased amygdala reactivity and increased emotional memory.
    Frontiers in Neuroscience 11/2014; 8(380). DOI:10.3389/fnins.2014.00380
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Withdrawal from long-term dosing with exogenous progesterone precipitates increased anxiety-linked changes in behavior in animal models due to the abrupt decrease in brain concentration of allopregnanolone (ALLO), a neuroactive metabolite of progesterone. We show that a withdrawal-like effect also occurs during the late diestrus phase (LD) of the natural ovarian cycle in rats, when plasma progesterone and ALLO are declining but estrogen secretion maintains a stable low level. This effect at LD was prevented by short-term treatment with low dose fluoxetine. During LD, but not at other stages of the estrous cycle, exposure to anxiogenic stress induced by whole body vibration at 4Hz for 5min evoked a significant decrease in tail flick latency (stress-induced hyperalgesia) and a decrease in the number of Fos-positive neurons present in the periaqueductal gray (PAG). The threshold to evoke fear-like behaviors in response to electrical stimulation of the dorsal PAG was lower in the LD phase, indicating an increase in the intrinsic excitability of the PAG circuitry. All these effects were blocked by short-term administration of fluoxetine (2×1.75mgkg(-1) i.p.) during LD. This dosage increased the whole brain concentration of ALLO, as determined using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, but was without effect on the extracellular concentration of 5-HT in the dorsal PAG, as measured by microdialysis. We suggest that fluoxetine-induced rise in brain ALLO concentration during LD offsets the sharp physiological decline, thus removing the trigger for the development of anxiogenic withdrawal effects. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    European neuropsychopharmacology: the journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology 12/2014; 25(1). DOI:10.1016/j.euroneuro.2014.11.017 · 3.68 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
99 Downloads
Available from
May 21, 2014