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Muthayya S, Eilander A, Transler C, Thomas T, Van Der Knaap HCM, Srinivasan K et al. Effect of fortification with multiple micronutrients and n 2 3 fatty acids on growth and cognitive performance in Indian schoolchildren: the CHAMPION ( Children ’ s Health and Mental Performance Influenced by Optimal Nutrition ) Study 1-3. Am J Clin Nutr 89: 1766-1775

Division of Nutrition, St John's Research Institute, St John's National Academy of Health Sciences, Bangalore, India.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (Impact Factor: 6.92). 05/2009; 89(6):1766-75. DOI: 10.3945/ajcn.2008.26993
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Fortification with multiple micronutrients has been shown to improve growth and cognitive performance among children in developing countries, but it is unknown whether higher concentrations are more effective than lower concentrations.
We compared the effect of 2 different concentrations of a combination of micronutrients and n-3 (omega-3) fatty acids on indicators of growth and cognitive performance in low-income, marginally nourished schoolchildren in Bangalore, India.
In a 2-by-2 factorial, double-blind, randomized controlled trial, 598 children aged 6-10 y were individually allocated to 1 of 4 intervention groups to receive foods fortified with either 100% or 15% of the Recommended Dietary Allowance of micronutrients in combination with either 900 mg alpha-linolenic acid plus 100 mg docosahexaenoic acid or 140 mg alpha-linolenic acid for 12 mo. Anthropometric and biochemical assessments were performed at baseline and 12 mo. Cognitive performance was measured at baseline and at 6 and 12 mo.
The high micronutrient treatment significantly improved linear growth at 12 mo (0.19 cm; 0.01, 0.36) and short-term memory at 6 mo (0.11 SD; 0.01, 0.20) and was less beneficial on fluid reasoning at 6 (-0.10 SD; -0.17, -0.03) and 12 (-0.12 SD; -0.20, -0.04) mo than was the low micronutrient treatment, whereas no differences were observed on weight, retrieval ability, cognitive speediness, and overall cognitive performance. No significant differences were found between the n-3 treatments.
The high micronutrient treatment was more beneficial for linear growth than was the low micronutrient treatment. However, with some small differential effects, higher micronutrient concentrations were as effective as lower concentrations on cognitive performance. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00467909.

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    • "Furthermore, in subjects with ADHD, higher levels of DHA were associated with lower attention problems, both at baseline and follow-up. The detected increase in DHA levels was more modest than in earlier studies where DHA was measured in plasma or erythrocytes (Muthayya et al, 2009; Osendarp et al, 2007). Cheek cell samples are more prone to contamination than blood samples and this may have contributed to this difference. "
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    ABSTRACT: Attention Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common child psychiatric disorders, and is often treated with stimulant medication. Non-pharmacological treatments include dietary supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids, although their effectiveness remains to be shown conclusively. In this study, we investigated the effects of dietary omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on ADHD symptoms and cognitive control in young boys with and without ADHD.Neuropsychopharmacology accepted article preview online, 19 March 2015. doi:10.1038/npp.2015.73.
    Neuropsychopharmacology: official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology 03/2015; DOI:10.1038/npp.2015.73 · 7.83 Impact Factor
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    • "children for verbal and non-verbal ability. Fortified groups showed no significant changes in total cognitive performance at 0 and 16 weeks Muthayya et al (2009) 34 11 subtests comprising 6 KABC II, 2 WISC-R and 3 RAVLT tests; tests conducted at baseline, 6 and 12 months All groups had a significant improvement; high MN more beneficial than low MN at 6 months but not at 12 months; no significant differences between high and low n-3 fatty acids treatment. Overall, high MN as effective as low MN on cognitive performance Supple- ment-based Sungthong et al. (2004) 35 Test of Nonverbal Intelligence (TONI-2); school exam marks IQ score increased in all groups compared to baseline; however, IQ change in daily Fe group was sig less than weekly Fe and placebo groups. "
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    • "ofDHA,and consumptionofasupplementofapproximately 100mgday -1for2monthsreducedupperrespiratory infectionsdramatically(Minnsetal.2010).Few studieshavelookedatfunctionalconsequencesofn-3 LCPUFAsupplementationlaterinchildhoodin developingcountries.Oneofthefewstudiesthatdid, theCHAMPIONstudy(Muthayyaetal.2009),found nofunctionaleffectsongrowthorcognitiveperfor- mancein600Indianschoolchildrenaftersupplemen- tationwithalowdoseofDHA(100mgday -1for12 months).Othernewstudieshavefoundindicationsof beneficialeffectsofn-3LCPUFAsupplementation onillnessandimmunefunctioninchildrenin low-andhigh-incomecountries(Pastoretal.2006; "
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