Facilitatory Actions of Serotonin Type 3 Receptors on GABAergic Inhibitory Synaptic Transmission in the Spinal Superficial Dorsal Horn
ABSTRACT Analgesic effects of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]) type 3 (5-HT3) receptors may involve the release of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the spinal dorsal horn. However, the precise synaptic mechanisms for 5-HT3 receptor-mediated spinal analgesia are not clear. In this study, we investigated whether GABAergic neurons in the superficial dorsal horn (SDH) express functional 5-HT3 receptors and how these 5-HT3 receptors affect GABAergic inhibitory synaptic transmission in the SDH, by using slice preparations from adult glutamate decarboxylase 67-green fluorescent protein (GAD67-GFP) knock-in mice. Tight-seal whole cell recordings from GFP-positive and -negative neurons showed that 5-HT3 receptor-specific agonist 2-methyl-serotonin (2-Me-5-HT) induced inward currents in a substantial population of both GFP-positive and -negative neurons. Additionally, we confirmed expression of 5-HT3 receptors in both types of neurons by single-cell reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis. Further, GABAA receptor-mediated inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs)-both those evoked by electrical stimulation and those occurring spontaneously in tetrodotoxin (i.e., miniature IPSCs [mIPSCs])-were recorded from GFP-negative neurons. 2-Me-5-HT increased the amplitude of the evoked IPSCs and the frequency of mIPSCs. The amplitude of mIPSCs was not affected by 2-Me-5-HT, suggesting that 5-HT augments GABAergic synaptic transmission via presynaptic mechanisms. The present observations indicate that 5-HT3 receptors are expressed on both somadendritic regions and presynaptic terminals of GABAergic neurons and regulate GABAA receptor-mediated inhibitory synaptic transmission in the SDH. Taken together, these results provide clues for the underlying mechanisms of the antinociceptive actions of 5-HT3 receptors in the spinal dorsal horn.
- SourceAvailable from: Feng Wei
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
- "Although cell bodies expressing these receptors in the dorsal horn are further identified as excitatory neurons [59,61], some 5-HT3 receptor-labeled neurons in rat dorsal horn express glutamate decarboxylase (GAD), a marker for GABAnergic neurons . Recent studies have demonstrated in the mouse that some dorsal horn neurons sensitive to 5-HT3 receptor agonists were GAD positive  and that some 5-HT3 receptor mRNA-containing dorsal horn neurons were GAD positive . Thus, 5-HT3 receptors appear to be expressed in both excitatory and inhibitory intrinsic neurons and terminals in the spinal dorsal horn. "
ABSTRACT: Background It has been recently recognized that the descending serotonin (5-HT) system from the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) in the brainstem and the 5-HT3 receptor subtype in the spinal dorsal horn are involved in enhanced descending pain facilitation after tissue and nerve injury. However, the mechanisms underlying the activation of the 5-HT3 receptor and its contribution to facilitation of pain remain unclear. Results In the present study, activation of spinal 5-HT3 receptors by intrathecal injection of a selective 5-HT3 receptor agonist SR 57227 induced spinal glial hyperactivity, neuronal hyperexcitability and pain hypersensitivity in rats. We found that there was neuron-to-microglia signaling via the chemokine fractalkine, microglia to astrocyte signaling via cytokine IL-18, astrocyte to neuronal signaling by IL-1β, and enhanced activation of NMDA receptors in the spinal dorsal horn. Glial hyperactivation in spinal dorsal horn after hindpaw inflammation was also attenuated by molecular depletion of the descending 5-HT system by intra-RVM Tph-2 shRNA interference. Conclusions These findings offer new insights into the cellular and molecular mechanisms at the spinal level responsible for descending 5-HT-mediated pain facilitation during the development of persistent pain after tissue and nerve injury. New pain therapies should focus on prime targets of descending facilitation-induced glial involvement, and in particular the blocking of intercellular signaling transduction between neurons and glia.Molecular Pain 06/2014; 10(1):35. DOI:10.1186/1744-8069-10-35 · 3.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
- "The dual expression of GAD and serotonin receptor in a single blastocoelar cell, as observed in the present study, is not unique to sea urchin, but instead is widely recognized in vertebrates, such as in stage 42–48 Xenopus tadpole (Huang and Moody, 1998), the prefrontal cortex of rat and primates (Jakab and Goldman-Rakic, 1998; Williams et al., 2002; Yan, 2002; Santana et al., 2004) and mouse spinal superficial dorsal horn (Fukushima et al., 2009). Whether the dual expression in the same blastocoelar TMC is a temporary phenotype at the Prism stage or the terminal phenotype that lasts through the larval stages in sea urchin or throughout the adulthood remains to be elucidated. "
ABSTRACT: The ontogenetic origin of blastocoelar glutamate decarboxylase (GAD)-expressing cells (GADCs) in larvae of the sea urchin Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus was elucidated. Whole-mount in situ hybridisation (WISH) detected transcription of the gene that encodes GAD in H. pulcherrimus (Hp-gad) in unfertilised eggs and all blastomeres in morulae. However, at and after the swimming blastula stage, the transcript accumulation was particularly prominent in clumps of ectodermal cells throughout the embryonic surface. During the gastrula stage, the transcripts also accumulated in the endomesoderm and certain blastocoelar cells. Consistent with the increasing number of Hp-gad transcribing cells, immunoblot analysis indicated that the relative abundance of Hp-Gad increased considerably from the early gastrula stage until the prism stage. The expression pattern of GADCs determined by immunohistochemistry was identical to the pattern of Hp-gad transcript accumulation determined using WISH. In early gastrulae, GADCs formed blastocoelar cell aggregates around the blastopore with primary mesenchyme cells. The increase in the number of blastocoelar GADCs was inversely proportional to the number of ectodermal GADCs ranging from a few percent of total GADCs in early gastrulae to 80% in late prism larvae; this depended on ingression of ectodermal GADCs into the blastocoel. Some of the blastocoelar GADCs were fluorescein-positive in the larvae that developed from the 16-cell stage chimeric embryos; these comprised fluorescein-labeled mesomeres and unlabelled macromeres and micromeres. Our finding indicates that some of the blastocoelar GADCs are derived from the mesomeres and thus they are the new group of mesenchyme cells, the tertiary mesenchyme cells.Biology Open 12/2013; 3(1). DOI:10.1242/bio.20136882 · 2.42 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
- "First, 5-HT directly activates postsynaptic 5-HT1A receptor and induces an outward current, inhibiting excitatory neurons and subsequently producing the analgesic effect . Second, 5-HT induces an inward current in the small population of SG neurons through the activation of postsynaptic 5-HT3 receptors on inhibitory interneurons [13,47]. Third, 5-HT inhibits glutamate release from C afferent fibers by activating presynaptic 5-HT1A-like receptors and shows an inhibitory effect on nociception . "
ABSTRACT: Background 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is one of the major neurotransmitters widely distributed in the CNS. Several 5-HT receptor subtypes have been identified in the spinal dorsal horn which act on both pre- and postsynaptic sites of excitatory and inhibitory neurons. However, the receptor subtypes and sites of actions as well as underlying mechanism are not clarified rigorously. Several electrophysiological studies have been performed to investigate the effects of 5-HT on excitatory transmission in substantia gelatinosa (SG) of the spinal cord. In the present study, to understand the effects of 5-HT on the inhibitory synaptic transmission and to identify receptor subtypes, the blind whole cell recordings were performed from SG neurons of rat spinal cord slices. Results Bath applied 5-HT (50 μM) increased the frequency but not amplitudes of spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSCs) in 58% of neurons, and both amplitude and frequency in 23% of neurons. The frequencies of GABAergic and glycinergic mIPSCs were both enhanced. TTX (0.5 μM) had no effect on the increasing frequency, while the enhancement of amplitude of IPSCs was eliminated. Evoked-IPSCs (eIPSCs) induced by focal stimulation near the recording neurons in the presence of CNQX and APV were enhanced in amplitude by 5-HT. In the presence of Ba2+ (1 mM), a potassium channel blocker, 5-HT had no effect on both frequency and amplitude. A 5-HT2A receptor agonist, TCB-2 mimicked the 5-HT effect, and ketanserin, an antagonist of 5-HT2A receptor, inhibited the effect of 5-HT partially and TCB-2 almost completely. A 5-HT2C receptor agonist WAY 161503 mimicked the 5-HT effect and this effect was blocked by a 5-HT2C receptor antagonist, N-desmethylclozapine. The amplitudes of sIPSCs were unaffected by 5-HT2A or 5-HT2C agonists. A 5-HT3 receptor agonist mCPBG enhanced both amplitude and frequency of sIPSCs. This effect was blocked by a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist ICS-205,930. The perfusion of 5-HT2B receptor agonist had no effect on sIPSCs. Conclusions Our results demonstrated that 5-HT modulated the inhibitory transmission in SG by the activation of 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors subtypes located predominantly at inhibitory interneuron terminals, and 5-HT3 receptors located at inhibitory interneuron terminals and soma-dendrites, consequently enhanced both frequency and amplitude of IPSCs.Molecular Pain 08/2012; 8(1):58. DOI:10.1186/1744-8069-8-58 · 3.65 Impact Factor