Chronic allograft nephropathy (CAN) represents progressive deterioration of renal allograft function with fibroinflammatory changes. CAN, recently reclassified as interstitial fibrosis (IF) and tubular atrophy (TA) with no known specific etiology, is a major cause of late renal allograft loss and remains a significant deleterious factor of successful renal transplantation. Carbon monoxide (CO), an effector byproduct of heme oxygenase pathway, is known to have potent anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic functions. We hypothesized that inhaled CO would inhibit fibroinflammatory process of CAN and restore renal allograft function, even when the treatment was initiated after CAN was established. Lewis rat kidney grafts were orthotopically transplanted into binephrectomized allogenic Brown Norway rats under brief tacrolimus (0.5 mg/kg im, days 0-6). At day 60, CO (20 ppm) inhalation was initiated to recipients and continued until day 150 or animal death. Development of CAN was confirmed at day 60 with decreased creatinine clearance (CCr), significant proteinuria, and histopathological findings of TA, IF, and intimal arteritis. Air-treated control recipients continued to deteriorate with further declines of CCr and increases of urinary protein excretion and died with a median survival of 82 days. In contrast, progression of CAN was decelerated when recipients received CO on days 60-150, showing markedly improved graft histopathology, restored renal function, and improved recipient survival to a median of >150 days. CO significantly reduced intragraft mRNA levels for IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha at day 90. Expression of profibrotic TGF-beta/Smad was significantly suppressed with CO, together with downregulation of ERK-MAPK pathways. Continuous CO (20 ppm) treatment for days 0-30, days 30-60, or days 0-90, or daily 1-h CO (250 ppm) treatment for days 0-90, also showed efficacy in inhibiting CAN. The study demonstrates that CO is able to inhibit progression of fibroinflammatory process of CAN, restore renal allograft function, and improve survival even when the treatment is started after CAN is diagnosed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) contribute to the development of interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy seen in chronic allograft nephropathy (CAN). As molecular hydrogen gas can act as a scavenger of ROS, we tested the effect of treatment with hydrogen water (HW) in a model of kidney transplantation, in which allografts from Lewis rats were orthotopically transplanted into Brown Norway recipients that had undergone bilateral nephrectomy. Molecular hydrogen was dissolved in water and recipients were given HW from day 0 until day 150. Rats that were treated with regular water (RW) gradually developed proteinuria and their creatinine clearance declined, ultimately leading to graft failure secondary to CAN. In contrast, treatment with HW improved allograft function, slowed the progression of CAN, reduced oxidant injury and inflammatory mediator production, and improved overall survival. Inflammatory signaling pathways, such as mitogen-activated protein kinases, were less activated in renal allografts from HW-treated rats as compared with RW-treated rats. Hence, oral HW is an effective antioxidant and antiinflammatory agent that prevented CAN, improved survival of rat renal allografts, and may be of therapeutic value in the setting of transplantation.
Kidney International 11/2009; 77(2):101-9. DOI:10.1038/ki.2009.421 · 8.56 Impact Factor
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