Low-dose carbon monoxide inhibits progressive chronic allograft nephropathy and restores renal allograft function
ABSTRACT Chronic allograft nephropathy (CAN) represents progressive deterioration of renal allograft function with fibroinflammatory changes. CAN, recently reclassified as interstitial fibrosis (IF) and tubular atrophy (TA) with no known specific etiology, is a major cause of late renal allograft loss and remains a significant deleterious factor of successful renal transplantation. Carbon monoxide (CO), an effector byproduct of heme oxygenase pathway, is known to have potent anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic functions. We hypothesized that inhaled CO would inhibit fibroinflammatory process of CAN and restore renal allograft function, even when the treatment was initiated after CAN was established. Lewis rat kidney grafts were orthotopically transplanted into binephrectomized allogenic Brown Norway rats under brief tacrolimus (0.5 mg/kg im, days 0-6). At day 60, CO (20 ppm) inhalation was initiated to recipients and continued until day 150 or animal death. Development of CAN was confirmed at day 60 with decreased creatinine clearance (CCr), significant proteinuria, and histopathological findings of TA, IF, and intimal arteritis. Air-treated control recipients continued to deteriorate with further declines of CCr and increases of urinary protein excretion and died with a median survival of 82 days. In contrast, progression of CAN was decelerated when recipients received CO on days 60-150, showing markedly improved graft histopathology, restored renal function, and improved recipient survival to a median of >150 days. CO significantly reduced intragraft mRNA levels for IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha at day 90. Expression of profibrotic TGF-beta/Smad was significantly suppressed with CO, together with downregulation of ERK-MAPK pathways. Continuous CO (20 ppm) treatment for days 0-30, days 30-60, or days 0-90, or daily 1-h CO (250 ppm) treatment for days 0-90, also showed efficacy in inhibiting CAN. The study demonstrates that CO is able to inhibit progression of fibroinflammatory process of CAN, restore renal allograft function, and improve survival even when the treatment is started after CAN is diagnosed.
SourceAvailable from: Peter A Hosick[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Background: Previous studies have demonstrated that induction of heme oxygenase-1 results in weight loss in several rodent models of obesity. However, the specific role of the heme oxygenase-1 metabolite, carbon monoxide (CO), in this response has yet to be established. We recently reported that chronic treatment with CO releasing molecules results in prevention of weight gain in mice fed a high fat diet. In the present study, we sought to determine the effect of chronic CO inhalation on the development and reversal of high fat diet induced obesity. Results: CO inhalation at both levels initially resulted in a prevention and reversal of body weight and fat mass over the first 10 weeks of treatment, however, this effect was not sustained. CO inhalation in the prevention groups also had an early effect to lower fasting blood glucose but this effect also was not sustained. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that CO inhalation has a transient effect to prevent and reduce body weight which is not sustained chronically in mice fed a high fat diet. These results suggest that chronic CO inhalation therapy is not an effective treatment to induce long term weight loss.03/2014; 1:6. DOI:10.1186/2052-9538-1-6
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ABSTRACT: Once patients with kidney disease progress to end-stage renal failure, transplantation is the preferred option of treatment resulting in improved quality of life and reduced mortality compared to dialysis. Although 1-year survival has improved considerably, graft and patient survival in the long term have not been concurrent, and therefore new tools to improve long-term graft and patient survival are warranted. Over the past decades, the gasotransmitters nitric oxide (NO), carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) have emerged as potent cytoprotective mediators in various diseases. All three gasotransmitters are endogenously produced messenger molecules that possess vasodilatory, anti-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties by influencing an array of intracellular signaling processes. Although many regulatory functions of gasotransmitters have overlapping actions, differences have also been reported. In addition, crosstalk between NO, CO and H2 S results in synergistic regulatory effects. Endogenous and exogenous manipulation of gasotransmitter levels modulates several processes involved in renal transplantation. This review focuses on mechanisms of gas-mediated cytoprotection and complex interactions between gasotransmitters in renal transplantation.American Journal of Transplantation 12/2013; 13(12):3067-3075. DOI:10.1111/ajt.12483 · 6.19 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a regulated enzyme induced in multiple stress states. Carbon monoxide (CO) is a product of HO catalysis of heme. In many circumstances, CO appears to functionally replace HO-1, and CO is known to have endogenous anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, and antiproliferative effects. CO is well studied in anoxia-reoxygenation and ischemia-reperfusion models and has advanced to phase II trials for treatment of several clinical entities. In alternative injury models, laboratories have used sepsis, acute lung injury, and systemic inflammatory challenges to assess the ability of CO to rescue cells, organs, and organisms. Hopefully, the research supporting the protective effects of CO in animal models will translate into therapeutic benefits for patients. Preclinical studies of CO are now moving towards more complex damage models that reflect polymicrobial sepsis or two-step injuries, such as sepsis complicated by acute respiratory distress syndrome. Furthermore, co-treatment and post-treatment with CO are being explored in which the insult occurs before there is an opportunity to intervene therapeutically. The aim of this review is to discuss the potential therapeutic implications of CO with a focus on lung injury and sepsis-related models.Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity 12/2013; 2013:360815. DOI:10.1155/2013/360815 · 3.36 Impact Factor