A novel in vivo method for quantifying the interfacial biochemical bond strength of bone implants.
ABSTRACT Quantifying the in vivo interfacial biochemical bond strength of bone implants is a biological challenge. We have developed a new and novel in vivo method to identify an interfacial biochemical bond in bone implants and to measure its bonding strength. This method, named biochemical bond measurement (BBM), involves a combination of the implant devices to measure true interfacial bond strength and surface property controls, and thus enables the contributions of mechanical interlocking and biochemical bonding to be distinguished from the measured strength values. We applied the BBM method to a rabbit model, and observed great differences in bone integration between the oxygen (control group) and magnesium (test group) plasma immersion ion-implanted titanium implants (0.046 versus 0.086 MPa, n=10, p=0.005). The biochemical bond in the test implants resulted in superior interfacial behaviour of the implants to bone: (i) close contact to approximately 2 mum thin amorphous interfacial tissue, (ii) pronounced mineralization of the interfacial tissue, (iii) rapid bone healing in contact, and (iv) strong integration to bone. The BBM method can be applied to in vivo experimental models not only to validate the presence of a biochemical bond at the bone-implant interface but also to measure the relative quantity of biochemical bond strength. The present study may provide new avenues for better understanding the role of a biochemical bond involved in the integration of bone implants.
Article: The influence of surface chemistry on implant interface histology: a theoretical basis for implant materials selection.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: A theory is proposed stating that an ideal implant material must have a dynamic surface chemistry that induces histological changes at the implant interface which would normally occur if the implant were not present. Evidence for the validity of this theory is provided with a series of bone-implant studies which result in stable interfacial osteogenesis under specific implant surface chemistry conditions. Insufficient or excess surface ion concentrations produce negative osteogenesis and fixation results. Implantation of osteogenic implants in soft tissues also produces undesirable histological responses as proposed in the theory. A variety of surface chemical analyses of the implant are reviewed which provide a scientific basis for the implant surface theory.Journal of Biomedical Materials Research 04/1976; 10(2):161-74.