Ultrastructural changes to the tegumental system and the gastrodermal cells in adult Fasciola hepatica following in vivo treatment with the experimental fasciolicide, compound alpha.
ABSTRACT Sheep infected with the triclabendazole-susceptible, Cullompton isolate of Fasciola hepatica were dosed with 15 mg/kg of compound alpha at 12 weeks post-infection. Adult flukes were recovered from the bile ducts at 24, 48 and 72 h post-treatment (p.t.). Ultrastructural changes to the flukes were assessed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), with a view to gathering information on the mechanism(s) of action for compound alpha and on the possible route of its entry into F. hepatica. The tegumental syncytium was more severely affected than the gut at all time-points p.t. with compound alpha, suggesting a predominantly trans-tegumental route of uptake. Disruption to the tegumental system became increasingly severe over time. A stress response was observed at 24 h p.t. and took the form of blebbing and increases in the production and transport of secretory bodies. By 72 h p.t., extensive tegumental loss and degeneration of the tegumental cell bodies had occurred. Degeneration of subtegumental tissues and internal flooding were also observed. Changes in the gastrodermal cells were slow to develop: reduced secretory activity was evident at 72 h p.t.. There was progressive disruption to the somatic muscle layers, with disorganization of the muscle blocks and loss of muscle fibres.
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ABSTRACT: A study has been carried out to investigate whether the action of triclabendazole (TCBZ) against Fasciola hepatica is altered by inhibition of P-glycoprotein (Pgp)-linked drug efflux pumps. The Sligo TCBZ-resistant fluke isolate was used for these experiments and the Pgp inhibitor selected was R(+)-verapamil [R(+)-VPL]. In the first experiment, flukes were initially incubated for 2 h in R(+)-VPL (1x10(-4) M), then incubated in R(+)-VPL + triclabendazole sulphoxide (TCBZ.SO) (50 μg/ml) until flukes ceased movement (at 9 h post-treatment). In a second experiment, flukes were incubated in TCBZ.SO alone and removed from the incubation medium following cessation of motility (after 15 h). In the third experiment, flukes were incubated for 24 h in R(+)-VPL on its own. Changes to the tegumental system and gut following drug treatment and following Pgp inhibition were assessed by means of light microscope histology and transmission electron microscopy. Incubation of the Sligo isolate in either R(+)-VPL or TCBZ.SO on their own had a limited impact on the tegumental syncytium and tegumental cells; the changes were consistent with a stress response by the fluke to drug action. Greater disruption was observed when the drugs were combined, in terms of the vacuolation and sloughing of the syncytium, spine disruption and the cessation of secretory activity in, and degradation of, the tegumental cells. In the gut, treatment with R(+)-VPL on its own did not lead to any cellular changes. Some limited changes to the mitochondria and the granular endoplasmic reticulum were observed after incubation in TCBZ.SO alone, together with reduced secretory activity and evidence of autophagy. However, these changes were far more pronounced in combination-treated flukes. The results of this study support the concept of altered drug efflux in TCBZ-resistant flukes and indicate that drug transporters may play a role in the development of drug resistance.Experimental Parasitology 09/2013; · 2.15 Impact Factor
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