Is Dwight Right? Can the Maximum Height of the Scapula Be Used for Accurate Sex Estimation?
ABSTRACT This paper presents data from a sample of 803 individuals (308 females and 495 males) from the Hamann-Todd collection testing Dwight's century-old assertion that maximum height of the human scapula can be used for sex estimation--males being larger than 170 mm, females falling below 140 mm. The results of this project show Dwight's method has high accuracy when scapular height falls either above or below the sex specific demarcation points (96.81%), but a vast majority of both males and females fall in between. The overall accuracy of the method is just 29.27%. By empirically demonstrating the limited usefulness of Dwight's technique, the author hopes the rote republication of this method in introductory texts on the subject will cease, and draw attention to the need for multiple methods of sex estimation as a response to the overlap in both size and shape between males and females.
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Conference Paper: Signal integrity and robustness of ACCI packaged systems[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: AC coupled interconnects (ACCI) enable reliable multiGiga-b/s/channel communication with less than 100μm pin pitch, and with BER less than 10<sup>-12</sup>. This paper discusses the potential for switching noise, crosstalk and ISI control in ACCI system.Electrical Performance of Electronic Packaging, 2005. IEEE 14th Topical Meeting on; 11/2005
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ABSTRACT: The most accurate and precise methods for the assessment of age and stature often require knowledge of sex. Thus, being able to correctly identify sex from skeletal remains is critical in the forensic context. The presence of the os coxae or skull can never be guaranteed, making the development of reliable methods of sex estimation using other skeletal elements necessary. Using a 724 individual calibration sample from the Hamann-Todd collection, this study identifies sexual dimorphism in the human scapula, and presents a new five-variable discriminant function for sex estimation. The overall accuracy of this method proved to be 95.7% on the cross-validated calibration sample, 92.5% on an 80 individual test sample from the Hamann-Todd collection, and 84.4% on a 32 individual test sample from the skeletal collection of the Wichita State University Biological Anthropology Laboratory. Additionally, a slightly less accurate two-variable model was developed and has cross-validated accuracy of 91.3%.Journal of Forensic Sciences 12/2009; 55(1):149-52. DOI:10.1111/j.1556-4029.2009.01232.x · 1.16 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Both forensic and archaeological sciences use metric analysis of human skeletal remains for sex estimation of unknown individuals. Thomas Dwight first reported the utility of scapula metrics for sex estimation in 1894, and subsequent years have produced several techniques for sex estimation using scapula metrics. Levels of sexual dimorphism vary across time and space, making these methods not universally applicable. Novel discriminant functions for unique populations are thus necessary. The present study establishes metric standards for sex estimation for a New Kingdom Egyptian skeletal sample from Tell El-Amarna using scapular measurements. The sample for this research consists of 27 individuals (14 males; 13 females) whose sex estimate based on pelvic morphology is unambiguous. The five measurements showing the highest degree of sexual dimorphism (p≤0.001) are used in the discriminant functions reported here: maximum length of the scapula, maximum length of the scapular spine, breadth of the infraspinous body, height of the glenoid fossa, and breadth of the glenoid fossa. The overall leave one out, cross-validated accuracy for the five reported discriminant functions ranges from 84.0 to 88.0%; similar to accuracies reported for the femur and humerus. Functions combining multiple variables produce higher accuracies than those based on single measurements. The unique population of Amarna, being comprised of emigrants from throughout Egypt, suggests these discriminant functions will have utility for Amarna period sites across the spatial distances of Egypt, and possibly the temporal range of the New Kingdom as a whole.Homo: internationale Zeitschrift fur die vergleichende Forschung am Menschen 10/2010; 61(6):413-20. DOI:10.1016/j.jchb.2010.09.001 · 0.96 Impact Factor