Is Dwight right? Can the maximum height of the scapula be used for accurate sex estimation?
ABSTRACT This paper presents data from a sample of 803 individuals (308 females and 495 males) from the Hamann-Todd collection testing Dwight's century-old assertion that maximum height of the human scapula can be used for sex estimation--males being larger than 170 mm, females falling below 140 mm. The results of this project show Dwight's method has high accuracy when scapular height falls either above or below the sex specific demarcation points (96.81%), but a vast majority of both males and females fall in between. The overall accuracy of the method is just 29.27%. By empirically demonstrating the limited usefulness of Dwight's technique, the author hopes the rote republication of this method in introductory texts on the subject will cease, and draw attention to the need for multiple methods of sex estimation as a response to the overlap in both size and shape between males and females.
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ABSTRACT: Given that skeletal material recovered from medicolegal contexts is often incomplete or damaged, forensic anthropologists need to have a variety of techniques at their disposal in order to correctly determine the sex of unidentified human remains. The purpose of the present study, therefore, was to produce practical standards for discriminating the sex of black South Africans using measurements of the glenoid cavity of the scapula. Standardized digital photographs of the left glenoid fossa were taken for 60 males and 60 females drawn from the Pretoria Bone Collection. An image analysis software program was then used to collect height, breadth, area, and perimeter data from each digital photograph. All four dimensions of the glenoid cavity were highly sexually dimorphic in this population group (p < 0.0001). Univariate logistic regression analysis yielded overall sex prediction success rates ranging from 88.3% for area of the glenoid fossa to 85.8% for glenoid fossa breadth. Multivariate procedures did not provide increased accuracy over those using only a single variable. Classification sex biases were below 5.0% for all equations. These results demonstrate that the analysis of glenoid cavity size provides a highly accurate method for discriminating the sex of black South Africans.Deutsche Zeitschrift für die Gesamte Gerichtliche Medizin 11/2011; 125(6):773-8. · 2.69 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The most accurate and precise methods for the assessment of age and stature often require knowledge of sex. Thus, being able to correctly identify sex from skeletal remains is critical in the forensic context. The presence of the os coxae or skull can never be guaranteed, making the development of reliable methods of sex estimation using other skeletal elements necessary. Using a 724 individual calibration sample from the Hamann-Todd collection, this study identifies sexual dimorphism in the human scapula, and presents a new five-variable discriminant function for sex estimation. The overall accuracy of this method proved to be 95.7% on the cross-validated calibration sample, 92.5% on an 80 individual test sample from the Hamann-Todd collection, and 84.4% on a 32 individual test sample from the skeletal collection of the Wichita State University Biological Anthropology Laboratory. Additionally, a slightly less accurate two-variable model was developed and has cross-validated accuracy of 91.3%.Journal of Forensic Sciences 12/2009; 55(1):149-52. · 1.31 Impact Factor
Conference Paper: Signal integrity and robustness of ACCI packaged systems[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: AC coupled interconnects (ACCI) enable reliable multiGiga-b/s/channel communication with less than 100μm pin pitch, and with BER less than 10<sup>-12</sup>. This paper discusses the potential for switching noise, crosstalk and ISI control in ACCI system.Electrical Performance of Electronic Packaging, 2005. IEEE 14th Topical Meeting on; 11/2005