Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato diversity and its influence on pathogenicity in humans.
ABSTRACT Among the Spirochaetes, the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex is responsible for Lyme borreliosis. This complex comprises more than 13 Borrelia species. Four of them are clearly pathogenic for humans: B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, B. afzelii, B. garinii and B. spielmanii. They can generate erythema migrans, an initial skin lesion, and can then spread deeply into the host to invade distant tissues, especially the nervous system, the joints or the skin. In humans, Borrelia pathogenicityseems to be linked with taxonomic position, but in vitro studies show the role of plasmids in B. burgdorferi s.l. pathogenesis. The inter- and intraspecies genetic diversity of B. burgdorferi s.l. evidences a clonal evolution of the chromosome, while plasmid genes are quite variable, suggesting their major role in Borrelia adaptability. The plasmid-encoded adhesins and vlse, crasps and osp genes determine invasiveness and host immune evasion of B. burgdorferi s.l., and select the bacterial host spectrum. The geographic distribution of B. burgdorferi s.l. is closely related to its vectors and competent hosts, and its development within these influences its diversity, taxonomy and pathogenesis, primarily via genetic lateral transfer.
- The Veterinary record. 12/2010; 167(26):1012-4.
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ABSTRACT: This study is part of a project that aimed to better understand the role of small mammals in the maintenance of the tick-borne encephalitis virus at four different sites in Switzerland. Here we focused on the detection of three intracellular pathogens, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Rickettsia spp., and Babesia spp., in field-derived ticks that detached from 79 small mammals. We analyzed 465 Ixodes ricinus larvae after their molt and 14 semiengorged I. trianguliceps that were feeding on rodents. No pathogen was detected in I. trianguliceps. In I. ricinus, the most frequently detected pathogen was Rickettsia spp. (7.3%). All Rickettsia spp. identified DNA belonged to R. helvetica except one DNA sample that was identified as R. monacensis. The prevalence of Babesia spp. reached 2.4% and identification at the species level revealed B. venatorum (1.7%) and B. microti (0.4%). A. phagocytophilum was not detected in I. ricinus that detached from rodents. To verify the absence of A. phagocytophilum at the four sites, additional questing nymphs collected at these sites were analyzed for A. phagocytophilum. This pathogen was detected at one site only, where 2% (2/100) of questing ticks were infected. Some of these emerging pathogens are described for the first time in molted larvae that fed on rodents. The presence of medically relevant pathogens, with a global prevalence of 9.9%, highlights the importance to inform the medical corporation on the risk for human health in these areas.Vector borne and zoonotic diseases (Larchmont, N.Y.) 03/2011; 11(7):939-44. · 2.61 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In Europe, Ixodes ricinus is the vector of many pathogens of medical and veterinary relevance, among them Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and tick-borne encephalitis virus, which have been the subject of numerous investigations. Less is known about the occurrence of emerging tick-borne pathogens like Rickettsia spp., Babesia spp., "Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis," and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in questing ticks. In this study, questing nymph and adult I. ricinus ticks were collected at 11 sites located in Western Switzerland. A total of 1,476 ticks were analyzed individually for the simultaneous presence of B. burgdorferi sensu lato, Rickettsia spp., Babesia spp., "Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis," and A. phagocytophilum. B. burgdorferi sensu lato, Rickettsia spp., and "Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis" were detected in ticks at all sites with global prevalences of 22.5%, 10.2%, and 6.4%, respectively. Babesia- and A. phagocytophilum-infected ticks showed a more restricted geographic distribution, and their prevalences were lower (1.9% and 1.5%, respectively). Species rarely reported in Switzerland, like Borrelia spielmanii, Borrelia lusitaniae, and Rickettsia monacensis, were identified. Infections with more than one pathogenic species, involving mostly Borrelia spp. and Rickettsia helvetica, were detected in 19.6% of infected ticks. Globally, 34.2% of ticks were infected with at least one pathogen. The diversity of tick-borne pathogens detected in I. ricinus in this study and the frequency of coinfections underline the need to take them seriously into consideration when evaluating the risks of infection following a tick bite.Applied and environmental microbiology 04/2012; 78(13):4606-12. · 3.69 Impact Factor
Current Problems in Dermatology
P. Itin Basel
Biological and Clinical Aspects
Basel • Freiburg • Paris • London • New York •
Bangalore • Bangkok • Singapore • Tokyo • Sydney
Dan Lipsker Strasbourg
Benoît Jaulhac Strasbourg
13 figures, 8 in color, and 11 tables, 2009
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Current Problems in Dermatology
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Lyme borreliosis : biological and clinical aspects / volume editors, Dan
Lipsker, Benoît Jaulhac .
p. ; cm. -- (Current problems in dermatology ; v. 37)
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 978-3-8055-9114-0 (hard cover : alk. paper)
1. Lyme disease. I. Lipsker, Dan. II. Jaulhac, Benoît. III. Series: Current
problems in dermatology ; v. 37.
[DNLM: 1. Lyme Disease. W1 CU804L v.37 2009 / WC 406 L98531 2009]
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