Nutrition and Health. The Issue Is Not Food, Nor Nutrients, So Much as Processing

Department of Nutrition Director, School of Public Health University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
Public Health Nutrition (Impact Factor: 2.68). 06/2009; 12(5):729-31. DOI: 10.1017/S1368980009005291
Source: PubMed
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    • "The problem of hunger and increasing population put on one side, the present food system produces items containing excess amounts of fat and sugar promoting overweight and obesity. Worldwide consumption of processed foods, that usually have low nutrient density, gives rise to both micronutrient and fibre deficiencies (Monteiro, 2009). As a combined effect of mass XML Template (2015) [12.2.2015–10:23am] [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] // "
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    ABSTRACT: Everyday great amounts of food are produced, processed, transported by the food industry and consumed by us and these activities have direct impact on our health and the environment. The current food system has started causing strain on the Earth's natural resources and that is why sustainable food production systems are needed. This review article discusses the need for sustainable diets by exploring the interactions between the food industry, nutrition, health and the environment, which are strongly interconnected. The most common environmental issues in the food industry are related to food processing loss, food wastage and packaging; energy efficiency; transportation of foods; water consumption and waste management. Among the foods produced and processed, meat and meat products have the greatest environmental impact followed by the dairy products. Our eating patterns impact the environment, but the environment can impact dietary choices as well. The foods and drinks we consume may also affect our health. A healthy and sustainable diet would minimise the consumption of energy-dense and highly processed and packaged foods, include less animal-derived foods and more plant-based foods and encourage people not to exceed the recommended daily energy intake. Sustainable diets contribute to food and nutrition security, have low environmental impacts and promote healthy life for present and future generations. There is an urgent need to develop and promote strategies for sustainable diets; and governments, United Nations agencies, civil society, research organisations and the food industry should work together in achieving this. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions:
    Food Science and Technology International 02/2015; DOI:10.1177/1082013215572029 · 1.22 Impact Factor
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    • "In relation to nutrition quality, studies have reported increased risk and elevated metaflammation from excessive amounts of sugars, salt, alcohol, and (saturated and trans) fats, as well as inadequate levels of fibre, fruit, vegetables, grains, and certain nutrients [17] [26]. Levels of processing have been proposed as a general indication of risk [29], and there appears to be a clear postprandial " metaflammatory " trail from processed versus whole foods, suggesting an evolutionary role in nutritional health [18] [30] [31]. Although individual and genetic factors influence outcomes [32], the worst-case scenario for obesity and chronic disease based on current evidence would be an excessive amount of a modern, western diet made up of highly processed foods [25]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The obesity epidemic and associated chronic diseases are often attributed to modern lifestyles. The term "lifestyle" however, ignores broader social, economic, and environmental determinants while inadvertently "blaming the victim." Seen more eclectically, lifestyle encompasses distal, medial, and proximal determinants. Hence any analysis of causality should include all these levels. The term "anthropogens," or "…man-made environments, their by-products and/or lifestyles encouraged by these, some of which may be detrimental to human health" provides a monocausal focus for chronic diseases similar to that which the germ theory afforded infectious diseases. Anthropogens have in common an ability to induce a form of chronic, low-level systemic inflammation ("metaflammation"). A review of anthropogens, based on inducers with a metaflammatory association, is conducted here, together with the evidence for each in connection with a number of chronic diseases. This suggests a broader view of lifestyle and a focus on determinants, rather than obesity and lifestyle per se as the specific causes of modern chronic disease. Under such an analysis, obesity is seen more as "a canary in a mineshaft" signaling problems in the broader environment, suggesting that population obesity management should be focused more upstream if chronic diseases are to be better managed.
    04/2014; 2014(5):731685. DOI:10.1155/2014/731685
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    • "In 2009, Monteiro [37] underlined that processing methods are applied to most foods consumed in developed and developing countries. In addition, a system co-written by the Monteiro [38] classified foods into three groups: 1) fresh and minimally processed; 2) foods and cooking ingredients; and 3) ultra-processed foods. "

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