Loss of protein kinase Cgamma in knockout mice and increased retinal sensitivity to hyperbaric oxygen.
ABSTRACT To determine if loss of protein kinase Cgamma (PKCgamma) results in increased structural damage to the retina by hyperbaric oxygen (HBO), a treatment used for several ocular disorders.
Six-week-old mice were exposed in vivo to 100% HBO 3 times a week for 8 weeks. Eyes were dissected, fixed, embedded in Epon, sectioned, stained with toluidine blue O, and examined by light microscopy.
The thicknesses of the inner nuclear and ganglion cell layers were increased. Destruction of the outer plexiform layer was observed in the retinas of the PKCgamma-knockout mice relative to control mice. Exposure to HBO caused significant degradation of the retina in knockout mice compared with control mice. Damage to the outer segments of the photoreceptor layer and ganglion cell layer was apparent in central retinas of HBO-treated knockout mice.
Protein kinase Cgamma-knockout mice had increased retinal sensitivity to HBO. Results demonstrate that PKCgamma protects retinas from HBO damage.
Care should be taken in treating patients with HBO, particularly if they have a genetic disease, such as spinocerebellar ataxia type 14, a condition in which the PKCgamma is mutated and nonfunctional.
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ABSTRACT: Most gap junctions between neurons in mammalian retina contain abundant connexin36, often in association with the scaffolding protein zonula occludens-1. We now investigate co-association of connexin36, zonula occludens-1, zonula occludens-2 and Y-box transcription factor 3 (zonula occludens-1-associated nucleic acid-binding protein) in mouse and rat retina. By immunoblotting, zonula occludens-1-associated nucleic acid-binding protein and zonula occludens-2 were both detected in retina, and zonula occludens-2 in retina was found to co-immunoprecipitate with connexin36. By immunofluorescence, the four proteins appeared as puncta distributed in the plexiform layers. In the inner plexiform layer, most connexin36-puncta were co-localized with zonula occludens-1, and many were co-localized with zonula occludens-1-associated nucleic acid-binding protein. Moreover, zonula occludens-1-associated nucleic acid-binding protein was often co-localized with zonula occludens-1. Nearly all zonula occludens-2-puncta were positive for connexin36, zonula occludens-1 and zonula occludens-1-associated nucleic acid-binding protein. In the outer plexiform layer, connexin36 was also often co-localized with zonula occludens-1-associated nucleic acid-binding protein. In connexin36 knockout mice, labeling of zonula occludens-1 was slightly reduced in the inner plexiform layer, zonula occludens-1-associated nucleic acid-binding protein was decreased in the outer plexiform layer, and both zonula occludens-1-associated nucleic acid-binding protein and zonula occludens-2 were markedly decreased in the inner sublamina of the inner plexiform layer, whereas zonula occludens-1, zonula occludens-2 and zonula occludens-1-associated nucleic acid-binding protein puncta persisted and remained co-localized in the outer sublamina of the inner plexiform layer. By freeze-fracture replica immunogold labeling, connexin36 was found to be co-localized with zonula occludens-2 within individual neuronal gap junctions. In addition, zonula occludens-1-associated nucleic acid-binding protein was abundant in a portion of ultrastructurally-defined gap junctions throughout the inner plexiform layer, and some of these junctions contained both connexin36 and zonula occludens-1-associated nucleic acid-binding protein. These distinct patterns of connexin36 association with zonula occludens-1, zonula occludens-2 and zonula occludens-1-associated nucleic acid-binding protein in different sublaminae of retina, and differential responses of these proteins to connexin36 gene deletion suggest differential regulatory and scaffolding roles of these gap junction accessory proteins. Further, the persistence of a subpopulation of zonula occludens-1/zonula occludens-2/zonula occludens-1-associated nucleic acid-binding protein co-localized puncta in the outer part of the inner plexiform layer of connexin36 knockout mice suggests close association of these proteins with other structures in retina, possibly including gap junctions composed of an as-yet-unidentified connexin.Neuroscience 07/2006; 140(2):433-51. · 3.12 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A growing understanding of the molecular events in age-related macular degeneration (AMD) has lead to targeted therapies for a select group of patients with advanced AMD. Development of therapies for the earlier stages requires further elucidation of disease mechanisms. In this study, a proteomics approach was used to identify proteins that had altered content in human donor eyes with progression of AMD. The early molecular events associated with AMD were identified by comparing the proteome of the macular and peripheral neurosensory retina during four progressive stages of AMD. Proteins were resolved and quantified by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Twenty-six proteins exhibited changes in content and were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry. Two-dimensional (2-D) and semiquantitative one-dimensional (1-D) Western blot analyses were used to determine whether changes identified by proteomic analysis were specific for a protein subpopulation or representative of the entire protein population. Twenty-six proteins were identified that exhibited changes at disease onset or with progression (indicating potential causal mechanisms) and at end-stage disease (indicating potential secondary consequences). These proteins are involved in key functional pathways, such as microtubule regulation and protection from stress-induced protein unfolding. Approximately 60% of the proteins exhibited changes specific to either the macula or periphery, with the remaining 40% changing in both regions. These results imply that both the macula and periphery are affected by AMD. This study provides the first direct evidence of AMD stage- and region-specific changes in retinal protein levels and highlights potential novel, disease-related proteins and biochemical pathways for future studies of AMD.Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science 07/2006; 47(6):2280-90. · 3.44 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We have shown previously with in vivo and in vitro animal models that the lens epithelium, in contrast to the nucleus, is remarkably resistant to hyperoxia. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the mRNA response of cultured human lens epithelial cells (LECs) to challenge by a high level of hyperbaric oxygen. Cells were treated for 3 hr with 50 atm of 99% O2, and then cultured normally for various times up to 11 days. Although the cells appeared normal immediately after the O2-treatment, they failed to grow and suffered 50% cell loss, as well as significant mitochondrial damage, during normal post-culture. Growth of the cells resumed after 3 days and by day 11, the number of O2-treated cells was the same as the controls. Remarkably, the 3 hr O2-treatment produced no immediate effects on either the cellular level of GSH, or on the activities of a number of antioxidant enzymes including glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, which is generally regarded as being highly sensitive to oxidation. In contrast, the activity of thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) was severely affected by the O2, decreasing by 51% after the 3 hr exposure. O2-induced death of the cells appeared to be caused by loss of ATP since a 31% decrease in ATP level occurred immediately after the O2-treatment, in spite of a 46% increase in lactate production. Analysis with real-time PCR showed a maximum 3-6-fold increase in mRNA levels 9 hr after the 3 hr O2-exposure for the enzymes heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), MnSOD and TrxR1 (the cytoplasmic form of TrxR). These results were confirmed with the use of one-step RT-PCR and Northern blotting. Initial upregulation of message for HO-1 occurred a few hours before any upregulation of MnSOD could be detected, suggesting that release of free iron from the degradation of heme by HO-1 may have played a role in the upregulation of the dismutase. No significant changes in mRNA levels were observed for the antioxidant enzymes catalase, CuZnSOD, glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase, or for the antioxidant protein thioredoxin. Recovery of TrxR activity over a 4-day period appeared to parallel the return of the cells to a normal rate of growth. The results indicate that damaging effects of hyperoxia on cultured LECs occur primarily in the mitochondria, rather than in the cytoplasm. Cells avoid O2-induced cell death, and return to a normal rate of proliferation by upregulating mRNA levels for HO-1, MnSOD and TrxR1. It appears that full activity of TrxR1, an enzyme required for the production of deoxyribonucletides for DNA synthesis, is essential for the normal growth of O2-challenged LECs.Experimental Eye Research 01/2005; 79(6):847-57. · 3.03 Impact Factor