Mineralocorticoid modulation of cardiac ryanodine receptor activity is associated with downregulation of FK506-binding proteins.
ABSTRACT The mineralocorticoid pathway is involved in cardiac arrhythmias associated with heart failure through mechanisms that are incompletely understood. Defective regulation of the cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR) is an important cause of the initiation of arrhythmias. Here, we examined whether the aldosterone pathway might modulate RyR function.
Using the whole-cell patch clamp method, we observed an increase in the occurrence of delayed afterdepolarizations during action potential recordings in isolated adult rat ventricular myocytes exposed for 48 hours to aldosterone 100 nmol/L, in freshly isolated myocytes from transgenic mice with human mineralocorticoid receptor expression in the heart, and in wild-type littermates treated with aldosterone. Sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) load and RyR expression were not altered; however, RyR activity, visualized in situ by confocal microscopy, was increased in all cells, as evidenced by an increased occurrence and redistribution to long-lasting and broader populations of spontaneous Ca(2+) sparks. These changes were associated with downregulation of FK506-binding proteins (FKBP12 and 12.6), regulatory proteins of the RyR macromolecular complex.
We suggest that in addition to modulation of Ca(2+) influx, overstimulation of the cardiac mineralocorticoid pathway in the heart might be a major upstream factor for aberrant Ca(2+) release during diastole, which contributes to cardiac arrhythmia in heart failure.
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ABSTRACT: Aims. We evaluated the effects of RU28318 (RU), a selective mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonist, Captopril (Capt), an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, and Losartan (Los), an angiotensin receptor blocker, alone or in combination with ischemia/reperfusion- (I/R-) induced cardiac dysfunction in hearts obtained from normal and diabetic rats. Methods. Isolated hearts were perfused for 30 min and then subjected to 30 min of global ischemia (I) followed by a period of 30 min of reperfusion (R). Drugs were administered for 30 min either before or after ischemia. Drug regimens tested were RU, Capt, Los, RU + Capt, RU + Los, Capt + Los, and RU + Capt + Los (Triple). Recovery of cardiac hemodynamics was evaluated. Results. Recovery of cardiac function was up to 5-fold worse in hearts obtained from diabetic animals compared to controls. Treatment with RU was generally better in preventing or reversing ischemia-induced cardiac dysfunction in normal hearts compared to treatment with Capt or Los alone. In diabetic hearts, RU was generally similarly effective as Capt or Los treatment. Conclusions. RU treatment locally might be considered as an effective therapy or preventative measure in cardiac I/R injury. Importantly, RU was the most effective at improving -dP/dt (a measure of diastolic function) when administered to diabetic hearts after ischemia.Journal of Diabetes Research 01/2013; 2013:427693. · 1.89 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Diabetes is a major risk factor for stroke. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in cerebral artery dysfunction found in the diabetic patients are not completely elucidated. In cerebral artery smooth muscle cells (CASMCs), spontaneous and local increases of intracellular Ca2+ due to the opening of ryanodine receptors (Ca2+ sparks) activate large conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (BK) channels that generate spontaneous transient outward currents (STOCs). STOCs have a key participation in the control of vascular myogenic tone and blood pressure. Our goal was to investigate whether alterations in Ca(2+) spark and STOC activities, measured by confocal microscopy and patch-clamp technique, respectively, occur in isolated CASMCs of an experimental model of type-2 diabetes (db/db mouse). We found that mean Ca(2+) spark amplitude, duration, size and rate-of-rise were significantly smaller in Fluo-3 loaded db/db compared to control CASMCs, with a subsequent decrease in the total amount of Ca(2+) released through Ca(2+) sparks in db/db CASMCs, though Ca(2+) spark frequency remained. Interestingly, the frequency of large-amplitude Ca(2+) sparks was also significantly reduced in db/db cells. In addition, the frequency and amplitude of STOCs were markedly reduced at all voltages tested (from -50 to 0 mV) in db/db CASMCs. The latter correlates with decreased BK channel β1/α subunit ratio found in db/db vascular tissues. Taken together, Ca(2+) spark alterations lead to inappropriate BK channels activation in CASMCs of db/db mice and this condition is aggravated by the decrease in the BK β1 subunit/α subunit ratio which underlies the significant reduction of Ca(2+) spark/STOC coupling in CASMCs of diabetic animals.PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(1):e53321. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This study investigated the Jurkat T cell line expresses cytotoxicity when treated with different concentrations of FK506, and analyzed the expression pattern of microRNA when stimulated by FK506 using the microRNAs microarray, as well as the expression pattern of a gene that is related to the differentiation, activation and proliferation of T cells after being affected by the change of microRNAs. To investigate the effects of FK506 on microRNA expression, we purified total RNA of Jurkat cells treated with 20 µM FK506 for 72 hours and used to analyze microRNA profiling by using Agilent's chip. These results demonstrated that treatment with FK506 markedly induced the down-regulation of 20 microRNAs as well as the up-regulation of 20 microRNAs in a time-dependent manner. The genes that down-regulated by FK506 include let-7a(*), miR-20a(*), and miR-487a. Otherwise miR-202, miR-485-5p, and miR-518c(*) are gradually up-regulated in expression. Sanger Institute and DAVIDs bioinformatics indicated that microRNAs regulated the several transcriptomes including nuclear factor of activated T cell-related, T cell receptor/interleukin-2 signaling, and Ca(2+)-calmodulin-dependent phosphatase calcineurin pathways. As a result of treating FK506 to a Jurkat cell line and running the microRNA microarray, it was found that FK506 not only took part in the suppression of T cell proliferation/activation by inhibiting calcineurin in Jurkat apoptosis, but also affected the microRNAs that are involved in the regulation of various signal transduction pathways.Journal of the Korean Surgical Society 10/2013; 85(4):161-168. · 0.21 Impact Factor