Retrial of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in children with pervasive developmental disorders: a retrospective chart review.
ABSTRACT Youths with pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs) often have symptoms that fail to respond to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) treatment. These children may be given a subsequent trial of another SSRI. This study reports on the outcome of PDD youths who received a second SSRI trial after an initial treatment failure.
Clinic charts were reviewed for 22 outpatient youths with a DSM-IV diagnosis of a PDD who were treated with an SSRI after an initial failure with a previous SSRI. Response for the second SSRI trial was determined using the Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement Scale (CGI-I). Treatment indications, symptom severity, demographic data, and side effects were recorded.
For the second SSRI trial, 31.8% of the subjects were rated as much improved on the CGI-I scale and determined to be responders, with 68.2% of the subjects demonstrating activation side effects. 90% of subjects demonstrated activation side effects when data from both SSRI trials were combined. There were no statistically significant associations between outcome of the second SSRI trial and clinical/demographic variables.
A second trial of an SSRI after an initial SSRI treatment failure was often unsuccessful in children and adolescents with PDDs. Activation side effects were common. Because alternative treatments in this population are limited, a second trial of an SSRI may still be considered. The study was limited by its retrospective design and by its small sample size.
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ABSTRACT: To determine whether clomipramine hydrochloride, a serotonin reuptake blocker with unique anti-obsessional properties, is differentially effective for obsessive-compulsive and stereotyped motor behaviors in autistic disorder compared with placebo and with the noradrenergic tricyclic antidepressant agent, desipramine hydrochloride. Following a 2-week, single-blind placebo washout phase, 12 autistic subjects completed a 10-week, double-blind, crossover comparison of clomipramine and placebo, and 12 different subjects completed a similar comparison of clomipramine and desipramine. Outpatient clinic. A referral sample of 30 male and female autistic patients were enrolled, and 24 completed the study. Key outcome measures were the Autism Relevant Subscale of the Children's Psychiatric Rating Scale, the Modified Comprehensive Psychopathological Rating Scale-Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Subscale, and the Clinical Global Impressions Scale. Clomipramine was superior to both placebo and desipramine on ratings of autistic symptoms (including stereotypies), anger, and compulsive, ritualized behaviors (P < .05), with no differences between desipramine and placebo. Clomipramine was equal to desipramine and both tricyclic agents were superior to placebo for amelioration of hyperactivity. Biological links between compulsions and stereotyped, repetitive behaviors in autistic disorder should be explored.Archives of General Psychiatry 06/1993; 50(6):441-7. · 13.77 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Depressive disorders are persistent, recurring illnesses that cause great suffering for patients and their families. To evaluate the benefits and adverse effects of newer pharmacotherapies and herbal treatments for depressive disorders in adults and adolescents. English-language and non-English-language literature from 1980 to January 1998 was identified from a specialized registry of controlled trials, meta-analyses, and experts. Randomized trials evaluating newer antidepressants (such as serotonin reuptake inhibitors, serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, and St. John's wort) that reported clinical outcomes were selected. Two persons independently abstracted data that were then synthesized descriptively; some data were pooled by using a random-effects model. Of 315 eligible trials, most evaluated antidepressants in adults with major depression, were conducted among outpatients, and examined acute-phase treatment. Newer antidepressants were more effective than placebo for major depression (relative benefit, 1.6 [95% CI, 1.5 to 1.7]) and dysthymia (relative benefit, 1.7 [CI, 1.3 to 2.3]). They were effective among older adults and primary care patients. Efficacy did not differ among newer agents or between newer and older agents. Hypericum (St. John's wort) was more effective than placebo for mild to moderate depression (risk ratio, 1.9 [CI, 1.2 to 2.8]), but publication bias may have inflated the estimate of benefit. Newer and older antidepressants did not differ for overall discontinuation rates, but side effect profiles varied significantly. Data were insufficient for determining the efficacy of newer antidepressants for subsyndromal depression, depression with coexisting medical or psychiatric illness, or depression in adolescents. Newer antidepressants are clearly effective in treating depressive disorders in diverse settings. Because of similar efficacy, both newer and older antidepressants should be considered when making treatment decisions. Better information is urgently needed on the efficacy of newer antidepressants in patients with nonmajor depression and in special populations, including adolescents.Annals of internal medicine 06/2000; 132(9):743-56. · 13.98 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We assessed the tolerability and utility of switching fluoxetine nonresponders to citalopram the day that fluoxetine therapy was stopped. Fifty-eight outpatients with DSM-IV major depressive episode and prospectively confirmed nonresponse to fluoxetine (mean final dose = 31 mg/day) were switched directly to citalopram (20 mg/day). Of the 58 patients, 44 (76%) had never been successfully treated with antidepressant medication. During a 12-week open-label treatment period, citalopram could be titrated up to a maximum dose of 60 mg/day. Response was evaluated using the Clinical Global Impressions (CGI) scale, the 24-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, and several other measures. Eighty-one percent (N = 47) completed the trial, and citalopram (mean dose = 38.8 mg/day) was well tolerated. The intent-to-treat CGI response rate was 46% (26/57) at week 6 and 63% (36/57) at study endpoint; the completer response rate was 76% among the 47 patients who completed the 12-week trial. Improvement from baseline on all dependent measures was statistically significant after the first week of citalopram treatment. Fluoxetine nonresponders can be quickly switched to citalopram, with good tolerability and reasonable chance of therapeutic benefit. Further work is necessary to assess the merits of this treatment strategy relative to other options.The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 10/2001; 62(9):683-7. · 5.81 Impact Factor