The Global Snakebite Crisis-A Public Health Issue Misunderstood, Not Neglected
ABSTRACT The global problem of venomous snakebite continues to attract attention despite it being described as a "neglected" issue. The current focus of the World Health Organization (WHO) remains anti-snake venom quality, although "availability and sustainability" of supply are consistently described as the key issues. Sustainability of antivenom supply has been elusive, with cost and pricing in developing countries being cited as the major reasons. The current WHO approach fails to explore the cost issue, but rather focuses on quality improvements, which may well adversely affect the costs of a product already perceived to be 'unaffordable.' The reference to cost and price indicates a marketing-based perspective may well give more relevant solutions to the snakebite crisis. This paper introduces a marketing model to examine global snakebite and to identify if the current approach is relevant and effective. The "4 Ps" model examines if the correct products are available, whether sufficient information exists concerning estimated market size, whether the assumptions frequently made about the costs of the product are correct and fully understood, if the product is promoted properly, and whether the method by which the product reaches the end user is optimum. The resulting analysis demonstrates that the current approach is characterized by a misunderstanding of the nature of the global snakebite problem. Further, a lack of implementation of key solutions, such as training doctors in developing countries with relevant protocols, has inevitably led to a lack of improvement in the snakebite arena over the last 30 years.
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ABSTRACT: Snakebite is a medically and socially significant issue in India, but it is one of the most neglected public health issues in poor rural communities. The estimated death incidence due to snake bites is 1,25,000 per year globally, which signifies that death rates associated with snake bites is a serious epidemiology. The current prospectus of treatment and reporting protocols need to be upgraded to higher standards. Anti-venoms have been widely used for more than a century for treating snakebites and other accidents with poisonous animals. Presently there are seven laboratories in India which produce anti-venom against four most venomous and medically important Indian snake species-Cobra (Naja sp.), Krait (Bungarus sp.), Russell's Viper (Daboia russelii) and Saw Scaled Viper (Echis carinatus sp.), the 'big four'. Most venom for anti-venom production in India is sourced from Chennai. In this article, we review the production of venom and anti-venom in India and suggest areas of improvement, with the help of medicinal plants capable enough to be used as anti-venom. In light of these observations, it is felt that there is a need to prioritize the betterment of venom and anti-venom production protocols, public education, and snake bite treatment in India.International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research 12/2014; 30(41):227-234.
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ABSTRACT: Mythic, out-dated, ambiguous and sometimes iatrogenic procedures, still remain in pre-hospital and hospital ophidian accident treatment. Errors, omissions and ignorance make ophidian accidents appear more dangerous than they truly are, resulting in a general public contempt toward snakes. Here we present an updated review of current knowledge on pre-hospital and hospital treatment of ophidian bite incidents, including indications, recommendations and logic errors. We describe an appropriate treatment for native Mexican poisonous snakebites using fabotherapics, based on our experience. Adequate initial pre-hospital and hospital management is crucial for a successful outcome of this medical emergency. We describe the state of the art in snake bite research discussing those procedures where research is needed to implement them either by the patient, first responders, paramedics and doctors. We suggest proposals to achieve even more efficient management of fabotherapics based on support networks. Finally, we emphasize prevention as the main subject of venom bite treatment, as it is always more adequate and economic to invest in prevention than to spend on mitigation during emergency and recovery.Gaceta medica de Mexico 01/2011; 147(3):195-208. · 0.19 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: There is a broad diversity of moisturizers for the treatment of dry skin; however, we do not know their real effectiveness. The objective here was to evaluate different products through their capacity to increase the epidermal hydration level (EHL) and to reduce the transepidermal water loss (TEWL). We evaluated twenty moisturizers in sixteen individuals. The analysis was made on volar forearm and basal measurements were made for EHL and TWEL with the later application of 8 gm of each moisturizer on a 2 cm2 area. For the EHL we found significant differences among the products (p < 0.0001), but only 35% (n = 7) of the moisturizers registered ascending levels of hydration in the course of measurements. The variance analysis for TEWL also was significant (p < 0.0001). In the short term only a few products induced a significant change in EHL. This study demonstrates the necessity to obtain objective information in order to avoid false publicity claims that may erroneously influence our prescription habits.Gaceta medica de Mexico 01/2011; 147(3):270-4. · 0.19 Impact Factor