c-FLIPL regulates PKC via AP-2 to inhibit Bax-mediated apoptosis induced by HIV-1 gp120 in Jurkat cells.
ABSTRACT c-FLIPL, an inhibitor of caspase 8, is known to inhibit the Fas/caspase 8 apoptotic pathway; however, its involvement of Bax/mitochondrial apoptosis is not well understood. Using human cells, Jurkat cell line, induced with HIV-1 gp120, we studied the effects of c-FLIPL on Bax/mitochondrial apoptosis. We found that the induction of apoptosis by HIV-1 envelope protein, gp120, involved the activation of both Bax-dependent and death receptor-mediated pathways, and HIV-1 infection deceased c-FLIPL expression. Interestingly, c-FLIPL expression downregulated protein kinase C (PKC) expression at the transcript level involving activated protein-2 (AP-2). c-FLIPL expression reduced AP-2 protein levels required to promote PKC protein expression and PKC-associated inactive form of Bax, and inhibited Bax activation, suggesting that c-FLIPL inhibits Bax activation via modulating PKC expression at the transcriptional level involving AP-2 during gp120 treatment. Collectively, these findings further corroborate the concept that gp120 plays an important role, via involvement of molecules such as c-FLIPL, in apoptotic cell death due to HIV-1 infection.
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ABSTRACT: Apoptosis of CD4(+) T lymphocytes, induced by contact between human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope glycoprotein (gp120) and its receptors, could contribute to the cell depletion observed in HIV-infected individuals. CXCR4 appears to play an important role in gp120-induced cell death, but the mechanisms involved in this apoptotic process remain poorly understood. To get insight into the signal transduction pathways connecting CXCR4 to apoptosis following gp120 binding, we used different cell lines expressing wild-type CXCR4 and a truncated form of CD4 that binds gp120 but lacks the ability to transduce signals. The present study demonstrates that (i) the interaction of cell-associated gp120 with CXCR4-expressing target cells triggers a rapid dissipation of the mitochondrial transmembrane potential resulting in the cytosolic release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria to cytosol, concurrent with activation of caspase-9 and -3; (ii) this apoptotic process is independent of Fas signaling; and (iii) cooperation with a CD4 signal is not required. In addition, following coculture with cells expressing gp120, a Fas-independent apoptosis involving mitochondria and caspase activation is also observed in primary umbilical cord blood CD4(+) T lymphocytes expressing high levels of CXCR4. Thus, this gp120-mediated apoptotic pathway may contribute to CD4(+) T-cell depletion in AIDS.Journal of Virology 09/2001; 75(16):7637-50. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Prostatic glandular epithelial cells express protein kinase Cepsilon (PKCepsilon ), an oncoprotein that coordinately disrupts the reactivation of the tumor suppressor Rb, derepressess transcriptional elongation of the c-myc oncogene, and propagates survival signals in LNCaP cells. Since the activation of such a program may contribute to the progression of human prostate cancer, a proteomic analysis was performed to gain a more global perspective on the signaling network that PKCepsilon might be capable of engaging in prostate cancer cells. Using CWR22 xenografts, we identified at least 18 different structural, signaling, and stress-related proteins that associated with PKCepsilon, including an interaction with the proapoptotic protein Bax that was novel to recurrent CWR22 tumors. An investigation into the biological significance of the PKCepsilon association with Bax provided the first evidence of an inverse relationship between endogenous levels of PKCepsilon and susceptibility of prostate cancer cells to the apoptotic effects of phorbol esters. Western blot and antisense experiments demonstrated that CWR-R1 cells expressed moderate levels of PKCepsilon and relied on this protein to survive in the presence of phorbol esters, while the apoptosis normally induced by phorbol esters in PKCepsilon -deficient LNCaP cells was dependent on the presence of Bax. Forced expression of PKCepsilon in LNCaP cells was sufficient to confer a significant resistance to phorbol esters and this resistance was associated with an inhibition of phorbol ester-induced Bax conformational rearrangements that are important for Bax oligomerization, mitochondrial integration, and cytochrome c release. Considered in their entirety, our data suggest that an association of PKCepsilon with Bax may neutralize apoptotic signals propagated through a mitochondrial death-signaling pathway.Oncogene 10/2003; 22(39):7958-68. · 7.36 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Apoptosis (programmed cell death) of T lymphocytes has been proposed as a mechanism which plays an important role in the pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease. Activation of Fas (CD95) can either result in costimulation of proliferation and cytokine production or in the induction of apoptosis of T lymphocytes. This raises the possibility that Fas is involved in the observed T cell apoptosis during HIV disease. In this report we show that peripheral blood CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes from HIV-infected individuals undergo apoptosis in vitro in response to antibody stimulation (cross-linking) of Fas at a much higher frequency than from uninfected controls. This anti-Fas-induced T cell apoptosis is markedly higher than spontaneous T cell apoptosis in HIV-infected individuals. Antibodies against other members of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)/nerve growth factor receptor family such as CD27, CD30, CD40, 4-1BB, p55 TNF receptor, p75 TNF receptor, and TNF receptor-related protein did not result in any increase of T cell apoptosis above that spontaneously observed in HIV+ individuals. Anti-Fas-induced apoptosis was much higher in symptomatic HIV-infected individuals; and the magnitude of anti-Fas-induced CD4+ T cell apoptosis correlated inversely with peripheral blood CD4+ T cell absolute counts. Surface expression of Fas on T cells was also found to be higher in HIV-infected individuals. Resting and activated CD4+ and CD8+ T cells both underwent apoptosis in response to anti-Fas antibody. L-Selectin positive memory CD4+ T cells were especially susceptible to anti-Fas-induced apoptosis. These findings show that CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes in HIV-infected individuals are primed in vivo to undergo apoptosis in response to Fas stimulation, suggesting that Fas signaling may be responsible for the T lymphocyte functional defects and depletion observed in HIV disease.Journal of Experimental Medicine 07/1995; 181(6):2029-36. · 13.21 Impact Factor