Enzymatic assembly of DNA molecules up to several hundred kilobases.

The J. Craig Venter Institute, Synthetic Biology Group, Rockville, Maryland, USA.
Nature Methods (Impact Factor: 25.95). 05/2009; 6(5):343-5. DOI: 10.1038/nmeth.1318
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT We describe an isothermal, single-reaction method for assembling multiple overlapping DNA molecules by the concerted action of a 5' exonuclease, a DNA polymerase and a DNA ligase. First we recessed DNA fragments, yielding single-stranded DNA overhangs that specifically annealed, and then covalently joined them. This assembly method can be used to seamlessly construct synthetic and natural genes, genetic pathways and entire genomes, and could be a useful molecular engineering tool.


Available from: Daniel G Gibson, May 12, 2014
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: With the rapid development of synthetic biology, the demand for assembling multiple DNA (genes) fragments into a large circular DNA structure in one step has dramatically increased. However, for constructions of most circular DNA, there are two contradictions in the ligation/assembly and transformation steps. The ligation/assembly consists of two different reactions: 1) the ligation/assembly between any two pieces of a linear form DNA; 2) the cyclization (or self-ligation) of a single linear form DNA. The first contradiction is that the bimolecular ligation/assembly requires a higher DNA concentration while the cyclization favors a lower one; the second contradiction is that a successful transformation of a ligation/assembly product requires a relatively high DNA concentration again. This study is the first attempt to use linear plasmid and Cyclization After Transformation (CAT) strategy to neutralize those contradictions systematically. The linear assembly combined with CAT method was demonstrated to increase the overall construction efficiency by 3-4 times for both the traditional ligation and for the new in vitro recombination-based assembly methods including recombinant DNA, Golden Gate, SLIC (Sequence and Ligation Independent Cloning) and Gibson Isothermal Assembly. Finally, the linear assembly combined with CAT method was successfully applied to assemble a pathway of 7 gene fragments responsible for synthesizing precorrin 3A which is an important intermediate in VB12 production. The linear assembly combined with CAT strategy method can be regarded as a general strategy to enhance the efficiency of most existing circular DNA construction technologies and could be used in construction of a metabolic pathway consisting of multiple genes.
    Microbial Cell Factories 02/2015; 14(1):18. DOI:10.1186/s12934-015-0204-x · 4.25 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: One of the primary industrial-scale cellulase producers is the ascomycete fungus, Hypocrea jecorina, which produces and secretes large quantities of diverse cellulolytic enzymes. Perhaps the single most important biomass degrading enzyme is cellobiohydrolase I (cbh1or Cel7A) due to its enzymatic proficiency in cellulose depolymerization. However, production of Cel7A with native-like properties from heterologous expression systems has proven difficult. In this study, we develop a protein expression system in H. jecorina (Trichoderma reesei) useful for production and secretion of heterologous cellobiohydrolases from glycosyl hydrolase family 7. Building upon previous work in heterologous protein expression in filamentous fungi, we have integrated a native constitutive enolase promoter with the native cbh1 signal sequence. The constitutive eno promoter driving the expression of Cel7A allows growth on glucose and results in repression of the native cellulase system, severely reducing background endo- and other cellulase activity and greatly simplifying purification of the recombinant protein. Coupling this system to a Δcbh1 strain of H. jecorina ensures that only the recombinant Cel7A protein is produced. Two distinct transformant colony morphologies were observed and correlated with high and null protein production. Production levels in 'fast' transformants are roughly equivalent to those in the native QM6a strain of H. jecorina, typically in the range of 10 to 30 mg/L when grown in continuous stirred-tank fermenters. 'Slow' transformants showed no evidence of Cel7A production. Specific activity of the purified recombinant Cel7A protein is equivalent to that of native protein when assayed on pretreated corn stover, as is the thermal stability and glycosylation level. Purified Cel7A produced from growth on glucose demonstrated remarkably consistent specific activity. Purified Cel7A from the same strain grown on lactose demonstrated significantly higher variability in activity. The elimination of background cellulase induction provides much more consistent measured specific activity compared to a traditional cbh1 promoter system induced with lactose. This expression system provides a powerful tool for the expression and comparison of mutant and/or phylogenetically diverse cellobiohydrolases in the industrially relevant cellulase production host H. jecorina.
    Biotechnology for Biofuels 03/2015; 8:45. DOI:10.1186/s13068-015-0230-2 · 6.22 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background In low-copy-number plasmids, the partitioning loci (par) act to ensure proper plasmid segregation and copy number maintenance in the daughter cells. In many bacterial species, par gene homologues are encoded on the chromosome, but their function is much less understood. In the two-replicon, polyploid genome of the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermus thermophilus, both the chromosome and the megaplasmid encode par gene homologues (parABc and parABm, respectively). The mode of partitioning of the two replicons and the role of the two Par systems in the replication, segregation and maintenance of the genome copies are completely unknown in this organism. Results We generated a series of chromosomal and megaplasmid par mutants and sGFP reporter strains and analyzed them with respect to DNA segregation defects, genome copy number and replication origin localization. We show that the two ParB proteins specifically bind their cognate centromere-like sequences parS, and that both ParB-parS complexes localize at the cell poles. Deletion of the chromosomal parAB genes did not apparently affect the cell growth, the frequency of cells with aberrant nucleoids, or the chromosome and megaplasmid replication. In contrast, deletion of the megaplasmid parAB operon or of the parB gene was not possible, indicating essentiality of the megaplasmid-encoded Par system. A mutant expressing lower amounts of ParABm showed growth defects, a high frequency of cells with irregular nucleoids and a loss of a large portion of the megaplasmid. The truncated megaplasmid could not be partitioned appropriately, as interlinked megaplasmid molecules (catenenes) could be detected, and the ParBm-parSm complexes in this mutant lost their polar localization. Conclusions We show that in T. thermophilus the chromosomal par locus is not required for either the chromosomal or megaplasmid bulk DNA replication and segregation. In contrast, the megaplasmid Par system of T. thermophilus is needed for the proper replication and segregation of the megaplasmid, and is essential for its maintenance. The two Par sets in T. thermophilus appear to function in a replicon-specific manner. To our knowledge, this is the first analysis of Par systems in a polyploid bacterium. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12864-015-1523-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
    BMC Genomics 04/2015; 16(1). DOI:10.1186/s12864-015-1523-3 · 4.04 Impact Factor