Fourteen-year longitudinal study of vascular risk factors, APOE genotype, and cognition: The ARIC MRI Study
ABSTRACT Strokes, vascular risk factors, and apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype are associated with cognitive decline in the elderly, but definitive evidence that these affect cognition as early as middle age is limited.
We describe the relationships of APOE genotype, stroke, and vascular risk factors with cognitive change over a 14-year follow-up in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study cohort recruited while in middle age.
Participants included a subset of the ARIC Study who underwent assessments of cognitive function and vascular risk factors. Four cognitive assessments were performed between 1990-1992 and 2004-2006. Cognitive assessments included the Delayed Word Recall (DWR) Test, the Digit Symbol Substitution (DSS) Test, and the Word Fluency (WF) Test. Vascular risk factors were assessed during the baseline visit in 1990-1992. Incident stroke was recorded over the 14 years of follow-up.
There were 1130 participants (mean age, 59 +/- 4.3 [SD] years; 62% women; 52% African-American) with longitudinal data. In multivariate, random-effects linear models adjusted for age, education, gender, and race, the risk factors diabetes and APOE epsilon4 genotype were independently associated with a decline in performance on the DSS test (both P < .005), whereas hypertension and stroke were not. For DWR, stroke and APOE epsilon4 genotype were independent predictors of decline (both P < .001). For the WF test, metabolic syndrome, hypertension, and stroke were independently associated with decline (all P < .005). No evidence of differential effects of risk factors on cognitive decline by race, gender, or interactions between risk factors was found.
The vascular risk factors diabetes and hypertension, a history of stroke itself, and APOE epsilon4 genotype independently contribute to cognitive decline in late middle age and early elderly years.
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ABSTRACT: The scientific literature supports a link between midlife adiposity and cognitive function or decline but most studies to-date have investigated only overall adiposity, often omitting important confounders from the analyses. We investigated in a cross-time design the relationships between two different midlife adiposity markers and subsequent cognitive function, testing midlife dietary patterns as a potential confounder of the associations. The study was based on the «Supplémentation en Vitamines et Minéraux Antioxydants» randomized trial (SU.VI.MAX, 1994-2002) and the SU.VI.MAX 2 observational follow-up study (2007-2009). A general-population cohort in France. N=2,817 individuals (1,493 men and 1,324 women) included in both the SU.VI.MAX and SU.VI.MAX 2 studies. The cognitive performance of 2,817 middle-aged adults participating in the SU.VI.MAX (Supplémentation en Vitamines et Minéraux Antioxydant) study was assessed in 2007-2009 using 6 neuropsychological tests. Principal component analysis was used to derive specific cognitive scores. A composite cognitive score was also computed. Body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) were measured 13 years earlier (1994). Associations between midlife adiposity and cognitive functioning were estimated through covariance analyses. After adjustment for obesity-related cardio-metabolic parameters, higher BMI and larger WC at midlife predicted lower executive function. For example, the adjusted mean difference (95% confidence interval) for 1 SD increase in WC was -0.48 (-0.97, 0.00). Obese participants in midlife showed an adjusted mean difference (95% confidence interval) of -1.68 (-3.15, -0.22) compared with non-obese. Further adjustment for midlife dietary patterns slightly attenuated these associations. No relationships were observed with verbal memory or global cognitive function. Midlife overall and abdominal adiposity were similarly associated with lower executive functioning scores. Dietary patterns may partly explain such a relationship, arguing for the importance of controlling for lifestyle confounders in future studies.The Journal of Nutrition Health and Aging 01/2015; 19(2):183-9. DOI:10.1007/s12603-014-0508-2 · 2.39 Impact Factor