Hepatitis C Virus and Disrupted Interferon Signaling Promote Lymphoproliferation via Type II CD95 and Interleukins
ABSTRACT The molecular mechanisms of lymphoproliferation associated with the disruption of interferon (IFN) signaling and chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection are poorly understood. Lymphomas are extrahepatic manifestations of HCV infection; we sought to clarify the molecular mechanisms of these processes.
We established interferon regulatory factor-1-null (irf-1(-/-)) mice with inducible and persistent expression of HCV structural proteins (irf-1/CN2 mice). All the mice (n = 900) were observed for at least 600 days after Cre/loxP switching. Histologic analyses, as well as analyses of lymphoproliferation, sensitivity to Fas-induced apoptosis, colony formation, and cytokine production, were performed. Proteins associated with these processes were also assessed.
Irf-1/CN2 mice had extremely high incidences of lymphomas and lymphoproliferative disorders and displayed increased mortality. Disruption of irf-1 reduced the sensitivity to Fas-induced apoptosis and decreased the levels of caspases-3/7 and caspase-9 messenger RNA species and enzymatic activities. Furthermore, the irf-1/CN2 mice showed decreased activation of caspases-3/7 and caspase-9 and increased levels of interleukin (IL)-2, IL-10, and Bcl-2, as well as increased Bcl-2 expression, which promoted oncogenic transformation of lymphocytes. IL-2 and IL-10 were induced by the HCV core protein in splenocytes.
Disruption of IFN signaling resulted in development of lymphoma, indicating that differential signaling occurs in lymphocytes compared with liver. This mouse model, in which HCV expression and disruption of IFN signaling synergize to promote lymphoproliferation, will be an important tool for the development of therapeutic agents that target the lymphoproliferative pathway.
- SourceAvailable from: Kyoko Tsukiyama-Kohara
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- "Conditional transgene activation of the HCV cDNA (core, E1, E2, and NS2) protects mice from Fas-mediated lethal acute liver failure, by inhibiting cytochrome c release from mitochondria . Persistent HCV protein expression is established by targeted disruption ISRN Hematology of interferon regulatory factor-1 (irf-1), and high incidences of lymphoproliferative disorders are noted in irf-1 −/− CN2 mice . Previously, transgenic mice that expressed the HCV core protein were established using a promoter derived from hepatitis B virus , whereas mice that expressed structural or complete viral proteins were established using promoters derived from the albumin gene . "
ABSTRACT: B cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma is a typical extrahepatic manifestation frequently associated with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. The mechanism by which HCV infection leads to lymphoproliferative disorder remains unclear. Our group established HCV transgenic mice that expressed the full HCV genome in B cells (RzCD19Cre mice). We observed a 25.0% incidence of diffuse large B cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas (22.2% in male and 29.6% in female mice) within 600 days of birth. Interestingly, RzCD19Cre mice with substantially elevated serum-soluble interleukin-2 receptor α-subunit (sIL-2Rα) levels (>1000 pg/mL) developed B cell lymphomas. Another mouse model of lymphoproliferative disorder was established by persistent expression of HCV structural proteins through disruption of interferon regulatory factor-1 (irf-1(_/_)/CN2 mice). Irf-1(_/_)/CN2 mice showed extremely high incidences of lymphomas and lymphoproliferative disorders. Moreover, these mice showed increased levels of interleukin (IL)-2, IL-10, and Bcl-2 as well as increased Bcl-2 expression, which promoted oncogenic transformation of lymphocytes.07/2011; 2011(2090-441X):167501. DOI:10.5402/2011/167501
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ABSTRACT: A 55-year-old woman underwent living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT). She had no history of autoimmune diseases. Spleen was preserved. Steroids were withdrawn at 3 months after LDLT. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection occurred at 3.5 years after LDLT. Recurrent hepatitis C virus infection was confirmed at 4.5 years after LDLT, and pegylated interferon was introduced. Diagnosis of EBV-positive post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) was made at 4.8 years after LDLT, and tacrolimus (Tac) was stopped completely. Then, unconsciousness, convulsion, and cervical stiffness appeared suddenly. Electroencephalography, cerebrospinal fluid analysis, and image studies revealed normal or only nonspecific findings. The patient was in a state of exhaustion; therefore, steroid pulse therapy (SPT) was attempted. Surprisingly, her general condition, including consciousness disturbance, was improved markedly, and Hashimoto's encephalopathy (HE) was suspected, based on this reaction to SPT. Elevations of anti-thyroglobulin antibody and anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody were confirmed. After withdrawal of Tac, and treatment with acyclovir and steroids, EBV-positive PTLD and HE improved, although they recurred at 5.1 years after LDLT. SPT improved only neurological symptoms. Molecular-targeted therapy was given for recurrent PTLD, based on analysis of sampling specimens. This therapy was effective, but tumor lysis syndrome occurred, and the patient died at 5.3 years after LDLT.Transplant Infectious Disease 04/2010; 12(4):347-52. DOI:10.1111/j.1399-3062.2010.00508.x · 1.98 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with the development of hepatocellular carcinoma and putatively also non-Hodgkin's B cell lymphoma. In this study, we demonstrated that PBMCs obtained from HCV-infected patients showed frequent chromosomal aberrations and that HCV infection of B cells in vitro induced enhanced chromosomal breaks and sister chromatid exchanges. HCV infection hypersensitized cells to ionizing radiation and bleomycin and inhibited nonhomologous end-joining repair. The viral core and nonstructural protein 3 proteins were shown to be responsible for the inhibition of DNA repair, mediated by NO and reactive oxygen species. Stable expression of core protein induced frequent chromosome translocations in cultured cells and in transgenic mice. HCV core protein binds to the NBS1 protein and inhibits the formation of the Mre11/NBS1/Rad50 complex, thereby affecting ATM activation and inhibiting DNA binding of repair enzymes. Taken together, these data indicate that HCV infection inhibits multiple DNA repair processes to potentiate chromosome instability in both monocytes and hepatocytes. These effects may explain the oncogenicity and immunological perturbation of HCV infection.The Journal of Immunology 10/2010; 185(11):6985-98. DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.1000618 · 5.36 Impact Factor