A systematic review of continuous positive airway pressure for obstructive sleep apnoea-hypopnoea syndrome.
ABSTRACT We conducted a systematic review of current evidence on the effectiveness of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) for treatment of obstructive sleep apnoea-hypopnoea syndrome (OSAHS). The primary outcomes were subjective sleepiness, using Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and objective sleepiness using Maintenance of Wakefulness Test (MWT) and Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT). Mean difference (MD) in endpoints was used to compare CPAP to usual care, placebo and dental devices. The analysis was stratified by symptom and disease severity at baseline. CPAP significantly reduced ESS score compared to control (MD -2.7, 95% CI -3.45, -1.96). The benefit was greatest in patients whose symptoms were severe at baseline: severely symptomatic population (MD -5.0, -6.5, -3.5); moderate (MD -2.3, -3.0, -1.6); mild (MD -1.1, -1.8, -0.3). CPAP significantly improved MWT score compared to control (MD 3.3, 1.3, 5.3) but not on the MSLT. There was no statistically significant difference between CPAP and dental devices on the ESS, MWT or MSLT, in a population with moderate symptoms. There was some evidence of benefit for blood pressure with CPAP compared to control. CPAP is an effective treatment for OSAHS in moderate to severe symptomatic patients and there may be benefits for mild symptoms. Dental devices may be a treatment option for moderate symptoms.
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ABSTRACT: This study aimed to identify pre-treatment and immediate early treatment factors predicting continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) use during the first week of therapy, when the pattern of non-adherence is established. Four domains of potential predictors were examined: pre-treatment demographic and clinical factors, patients' perceived self-efficacy, treatment delivery (mask leak and bothering side effects) and immediate disease reduction (residual respiratory events and flow limitation). The Autoset™ Clinical System objectively documented daily CPAP use, mask leak, residual respiratory events and flow limitation. Ninety-one CPAP-naive patients with newly diagnosed obstructive sleep apnea were followed for 1week after treatment initiation. Mean CPAP daily use during the first week was 3.4±2.7h, with significantly lower use observed in black than non-black participants (2.7 versus 4.4h, respectively, P=0.002). Less intimacy with partners caused by CPAP was the only treatment side effect correlated with CPAP use (r=-0.300, P=0.025). Reduced CPAP use during the first week was associated simultaneously with being black, higher residual apnea-hypopnea index and the treatment side effect of less intimacy with partners. The three factors together accounted for 25.4% of the variance in the CPAP use (R(2) =0.254, P<0.01). These data suggest the need to assess the impact of CPAP on intimacy and troubleshooting aspects of the treatment that interfere with sexual relationships. Assessing the presence of residual respiratory events may be important in promoting CPAP adherence. The association of race and CPAP use needs to be explored further by including more socioeconomic information.Journal of Sleep Research 10/2011; 21(4):419-26. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2869.2011.00969.x · 2.95 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To assess the effect of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) on 24 hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring values in a large number of patients with untreated systemic hypertension of new onset and obstructive sleep apnoea. Multicentre, double blind, randomised, placebo controlled trial. Eleven general hospitals in Spain between 2004 and 2007. 340 patients recently diagnosed as having systemic hypertension by a general practitioner (systolic blood pressure ≥140 mm Hg, diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mm Hg, or both) and an apnoea-hypopnoea index per hour of sleep of >15 events/hour. Patients were assigned to CPAP (n=169) or sham CPAP (n=171) for three months. Main outcome measurements Net changes in the different 24 hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring values from baseline to three months of optimal or sham CPAP. 277 (81%) of the 340 patients randomised were men; the patients had a mean age of 52.4 (SD 10.5) years, a body mass index of 31.9 (5.7), an Epworth sleepiness scale score of 10.1 (4.3), an apnoea-hypopnoea index of 43.5 (24.5). No differences between groups were seen at baseline. Compared with placebo and analysed by intention to treat, the mean 24 hour ambulatory blood pressure of the CPAP group decreased by 1.5 (95% confidence interval: 0.4 to 2.7) mm Hg (P=0.01). The mean 24 hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring measures decreased by 2.1 mm Hg (0.4 to 3.7) mm Hg (P=0.01) for systolic pressure and 1.3 (0.2 to 2.3) mm Hg (P=0.02) for diastolic blood pressure. Mean nocturnal blood pressure decreased by 2.1 (0.5 to 3.6) mm Hg (P=0.01). CPAP produced a statistically significant reduction in blood pressure in patients with systemic hypertension and obstructive sleep apnoea. This reduction is small and did not achieve the 3 mm Hg drop in mean 24 hour ambulatory blood pressure that the trial was powered to detect. Consequently, these results may have uncertain clinical relevance. However, taking into account the prevalence of hypertension and the likelihood of comorbidities, the decrease in blood pressure, although minimal, may be beneficial. Clinical trials NCT00202527.BMJ (online) 01/2010; 341:c5991. · 16.38 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We aim to assess the utility of a simple-to-use 8-point questionnaire in screening for moderate-severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and to assess the validity of cutoffs used to score body mass index (BMI) in this questionnaire. Patients undergoing diagnostic polysomnography (PSG) were asked to fill in a questionnaire with a simple dichotomized 8-point questionnaire, represented by the mnemonic STOP-BANG. A score of 3 or more out of a possible 8 was taken to indicate high risk for presence of OSA. These were then evaluated versus results from the overnight, monitored PSG. Three hundred and forty-eight patients underwent overnight diagnostic PSG, of whom 319 (91.2%) completed the questionnaire. Seventy-four (22.7%) were classified as being at low risk of OSA and 252 (77.3%) were classified as being high risk. The sensitivities of the STOP-BANG screening tool for an AHI of >5, >15, and >30 were 86.1%, 92.8%, and 95.6%, respectively, with negative predictive values of 84.5% and 93.4% for moderate and severe OSA, respectively. Using cutoffs of 30 or 35 for scoring the BMI did not significantly change the performance of the screening tool. STOP-BANG is a clinically useful tool with high sensitivity that can be used to screen patients for moderate and severe OSA. Using cutoffs of 30 for BMI, 40 cm for neck circumference, and 50 years for age simplifies the application of the tool without affecting performance.Sleep And Breathing 04/2010; 14(4):371-6. DOI:10.1007/s11325-010-0350-7 · 2.87 Impact Factor