A systematic review of continuous positive airway pressure for obstructive sleep apnoea-hypopnoea syndrome.
ABSTRACT We conducted a systematic review of current evidence on the effectiveness of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) for treatment of obstructive sleep apnoea-hypopnoea syndrome (OSAHS). The primary outcomes were subjective sleepiness, using Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and objective sleepiness using Maintenance of Wakefulness Test (MWT) and Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT). Mean difference (MD) in endpoints was used to compare CPAP to usual care, placebo and dental devices. The analysis was stratified by symptom and disease severity at baseline. CPAP significantly reduced ESS score compared to control (MD -2.7, 95% CI -3.45, -1.96). The benefit was greatest in patients whose symptoms were severe at baseline: severely symptomatic population (MD -5.0, -6.5, -3.5); moderate (MD -2.3, -3.0, -1.6); mild (MD -1.1, -1.8, -0.3). CPAP significantly improved MWT score compared to control (MD 3.3, 1.3, 5.3) but not on the MSLT. There was no statistically significant difference between CPAP and dental devices on the ESS, MWT or MSLT, in a population with moderate symptoms. There was some evidence of benefit for blood pressure with CPAP compared to control. CPAP is an effective treatment for OSAHS in moderate to severe symptomatic patients and there may be benefits for mild symptoms. Dental devices may be a treatment option for moderate symptoms.
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ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the importance of a multidisciplinary approach on increasing the response ratio expectation to mandibular advancing device (MAD) therapy in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome, especially in severe cases. Forty-two mild-to-severe OSAS patients were selected, after comprehensive evaluation by neurologists, otorhinolaryngologists and orthodontists, and treated with a Somnodent® device. Six months later, a polysomnographic exam with the MAD in situ was performed. The paired t-test evaluated the effectiveness of therapy and the results were compared with data from systematic reviews. The average treatment response was statistically significant for the apnoea/hypopnea index (AHI) and oxygen desaturation index and was higher than the outcomes presented in literature. An optimum therapy response (AHI < 5) was observed in 53% of patients (40% in severe OSAS) and a good response (AHI < 10) in 73% of patients (50% in severe OSAS). The Somnodent® device was effective and the multidisciplinary patient selection improved the response ratio compared to that reported by previous systematic reviews.Acta otorhinolaryngologica Italica: organo ufficiale della Società italiana di otorinolaringologia e chirurgia cervico-facciale 10/2013; 33(5):337-342. · 0.79 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Previous studies suggest that treatment for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in patients with epilepsy can improve seizure control. We investigated the effect of positive airway pressure (PAP) therapy on seizures in adults with epilepsy referred to the Cleveland Clinic for polysomnography (PSG) from 1997 to 2010. Seizure outcome at baseline and 1 year later was compared in patients with no OSA (apnea–hypopnea index [AHI] < 5), patients with PAP-treated OSA, and patients with untreated OSA. One hundred thirty-two subjects (age: 40.2 ± 13 (18–76) years, 65.4% female) were included. Seventy-six (57.6%) subjects had OSA; of these, 43 (56.6%) were on PAP therapy, and 33 (43.4%) were not on PAP therapy (either PAP-intolerant or refused therapy). Of the group with PAP-treated OSA, 83.7% were adherent (use ≥ 4 h/night at least 5 nights/week). The percentage of subjects with ≥ 50% seizure reduction and the mean percentage of seizure reduction were significantly greater in the group with PAP-treated OSA (73.9%; 58.5%) than in subjects with untreated OSA (14.3%; 17.0%). There were significantly more subjects with successful outcomes (with ≥ 50% seizure reduction or seizure-free at both baseline and follow-up) in the group with PAP-treated OSA (83.7%) than in the groups with no OSA (53.6%) and untreated OSA (39.4%). After adjusting for age, gender, body mass index, AHI, and epilepsy duration, we found that the odds of successful outcomes in subjects in the group with PAP-treated OSA were 9.9 and 3.91 times those of the groups with untreated OSA and no OSA, respectively. The group with PAP-treated OSA had 32.3 times the odds of having a ≥ 50% seizure reduction compared with the group with untreated OSA and 6.13 times compared with the group with no OSA. Positive airway pressure therapy appears to produce beneficial effects on seizures in adult patients with epilepsy and OSA.Epilepsy & Behavior 01/2014; 37:270–275. · 2.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Poor adherence to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment is associated with substantial health care costs, morbidity and mortality, and has been a leading obstacle in the effective management of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Successful interventions to improve CPAP adherence may ultimately include a variety of components. For patients living with spouses (refers to all domestic partners), the spouse will likely be an integral component to any successful intervention. Developing understanding of the role of spouses in adherence to CPAP has been identified to be a critical research need. This review expands the investigation of CPAP adherence to a broader context, from an exclusive focus on individual patients to a dyadic perspective encompassing both patients and their spouses. A conceptual framework based on social support and social control theories is proposed to understand spousal involvement in CPAP adherence. Methodologies for future investigations are discussed, along with implications for developing interventions that engage both patients and their spouses to improve CPAP use.Sleep Medicine Reviews 05/2014; · 8.68 Impact Factor