Kinetic analysis of the guanine nucleotide exchange activity of TRAPP, a multimeric Ypt1p exchange factor.
ABSTRACT TRAPP complexes, which are large multimeric assemblies that function in membrane traffic, are guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) that activate the Rab GTPase Ypt1p. Here we measured rate and equilibrium constants that define the interaction of Ypt1p with guanine nucleotide (guanosine 5'-diphosphate and guanosine 5'-triphosphate/guanosine 5'-(beta,gamma-imido)triphosphate) and the core TRAPP subunits required for GEF activity. These parameters allowed us to identify the kinetic and thermodynamic bases by which TRAPP catalyzes nucleotide exchange from Ypt1p. Nucleotide dissociation from Ypt1p is slow (approximately 10(-4) s(-1)) and accelerated >1000-fold by TRAPP. Acceleration of nucleotide exchange by TRAPP occurs via a predominantly Mg(2+)-independent pathway. Thermodynamic linkage analysis indicates that TRAPP weakens nucleotide affinity by <80-fold and vice versa, in contrast to most other characterized GEF systems that weaken nucleotide binding affinities by 4-6 orders of magnitude. The overall net changes in nucleotide binding affinities are small because TRAPP accelerates both nucleotide binding and dissociation from Ypt1p. Weak thermodynamic coupling allows TRAPP, Ypt1p, and nucleotide to exist as a stable ternary complex, analogous to strain-sensing cytoskeleton motors. These results illustrate a novel strategy of guanine nucleotide exchange by TRAPP that is particularly suited for a multifunctional GEF involved in membrane traffic.
Article: Kinetics and thermodynamics of phalloidin binding to actin filaments from three divergent species.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We compared the kinetics and thermodynamics of rhodamine phalloidin binding to actin purified from rabbit skeletal muscle, Acanthamoeba castellanii, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae in 50 mM KCl, 1 mM MgCl2, and pH 7.0 buffer at 22 degrees C. Filaments of S. cerevisiae actin bind rhodamine phalloidin more weakly than Acanthamoeba and rabbit skeletal muscle actin filaments due to a more rapid dissociation rate in spite of a significantly faster association rate constant. The higher dissociation rate constant and lower binding affinity of rhodamine phalloidin for S. cerevisiae actin filaments provide a quantitative explanation for the inefficient staining of yeast actin filaments, compared with that of rabbit skeletal muscle actin filaments [Kron et al. (1992) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 89, 4466-4470]. The temperature dependence of the rate constants was interpreted according to transition state theory. There is a small enthalpic difference (delta H++) between the ground states and the transition state. Consequently, the free energy of activation (delta G++) for association and dissociation of rhodamine phalloidin is dominated by entropic changes (delta S++). At equilibrium, rhodamine phalloidin binding generates a positive entropy change (delta S0). The rates of rhodamine phalloidin binding are independent of the pH, ionic strength, and filament length. Rhodamine covalently bound decreases the association rate and affinity of phalloidin for actin. The association rate constant is low for both phalloidin and rhodamine phalloidin because the filaments must undergo conformational changes (i.e. "breathe") to expose the phalloidin binding site [De La Cruz, E. M., & Pollard, T. D. (1994) Biochemistry 33, 14387-14392]. Raising the solvent microviscosity, but not the macroviscosity, dampens these conformational fluctuations, and phalloidin binding kinetics are inhibited. Yeast actin filaments bind rhodamine phalloidin more rapidly, suggesting that perhaps they are more flexible and can breathe more easily than rabbit or Acanthamoeba actin filaments.Biochemistry 12/1996; 35(45):14054-61. · 3.42 Impact Factor
Article: Fluorescence methods for monitoring interactions of Rab proteins with nucleotides, Rab escort protein, and geranylgeranyltransferase.Methods in Enzymology 02/2001; 329:14-31. · 2.04 Impact Factor
Article: Structural basis for guanine nucleotide exchange on Ran by the regulator of chromosome condensation (RCC1).[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: RCC1 (regulator of chromosome condensation), a beta propeller chromatin-bound protein, is the guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for the nuclear GTP binding protein Ran. We report here the 1.8 A crystal structure of a Ran*RCC1 complex in the absence of nucleotide, an intermediate in the multistep GEF reaction. In contrast to previous structures, the phosphate binding region of the nucleotide binding site is perturbed only marginally, possibly due to the presence of a polyvalent anion in the P loop. Biochemical experiments show that a sulfate ion stabilizes the Ran*RCC1 complex and inhibits dissociation by guanine nucleotides. Based on the available structural and biochemical evidence, we present a unified scenario for the GEF mechanism where interaction of the P loop lysine with an acidic residue is a crucial element for the overall reaction.Cell 05/2001; 105(2):245-55. · 32.40 Impact Factor