Optimisation of the pheromone blend of the swede midge, Contarinia nasturtii, for monitoring.
ABSTRACT The swede midge, Contarinia nasturtii Kieffer, is a serious pest in crucifers. Its pheromone is a blend of (2S,9S)-diacetoxyundecane, (2S,10S)-diacetoxyundecane and (2S)-acetoxyundecane. The pheromone is used in monitoring traps, and this study examines possible ways to optimise the traps.
Two dispenser types were compared: polyethylene dispensers and cotton dispensers. Polyethylene dispensers attracted male C. nasturtii for more than 6 weeks, whereas cotton dispensers were attractive for only 2 weeks. All three pheromone components were important for attraction of male midges in the field. The importance of the stereoisomeric compositions of the pheromone compounds was also tested-both in the wind tunnel and in the field. In the case of 2,9-diacetoxyundecane and 2-acetoxyundecane, the non-natural stereoisomers did not inhibit male C. nasturtii attraction, whereas one or both of the stereoisomers of 2,10-diacetoxyundecane did.
Pheromone traps with the synthetic pheromone in a 1:2:0.02 ratio emitted from PE dispensers were highly effective and long lasting. As the mixture of stereoisomers of 2,10-diacetoxyundecane strongly inhibited attraction of male C. nasturtii while those of 2,9-diacetoxyundecane and 2-acetoxyundecane did not have any inhibitory effect, it is possible to produce traps that are effective and long lasting but cheaper to produce and maintain.
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ABSTRACT: Field trapping experiments were conducted to evaluate the attractiveness of five different pheromone blends as well as the impact of trap design on attractiveness towards cocoa mirids, Sahlbergella singularis Hagl. and Distantiella theobroma (Dist.), in Cameroon. A total of 361 adults of S. singularis (359 males and two females) were caught. The highest numbers of mirids were found in traps with pheromone blends that combined a monoester and a diester, compared with traps with the diester or the monoester individually and control traps with no pheromone. Rectangular traps caught significantly more mirids compared with delta traps. The mean number of 5.1 mirids trap⁻¹ year⁻¹ caught in rectangular traps was significantly higher compared with the 1.8 mirids trap⁻¹ year⁻¹ for the delta traps. The data revealed that rectangular traps containing pheromone blends combining both the monoester and the diester have a good potential to lure and trap adult males of S. singularis on cocoa farms. The pheromone blends used were specific for S. singularis, and the use of pheromone traps appears to be a promising strategy for incorporation into integrated pest management strategies for the monitoring or even the control of S. singularis in cocoa plantations.Pest Management Science 02/2011; 67(6):672-6. · 2.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The potential for pheromone-based mating disruption of the Brassica pest Contarinia nasturtii was tested, both in small-scale plots with Brussels sprouts and in commercial-scale fields with either broccoli or cauliflower. Experiments in the small-scale plots used laboratory-reared insects released into a previously uninfested area, whereas large-scale experiments used a high natural population of C. nasturtii. Effectiveness of mating disruption was evaluated by the reduction of male captures in pheromone traps, and by reduction of crop damage caused by C. nasturtii. Dental cotton rolls (small-scale experiment) and polyethylene caps (large-scale experiment), containing 50 μg (2S, 9S)-diacetoxyundecane, 100 μg (2S,10S)-diacetoxyundecane, and 1 μg (2S)-acetoxyundecane, spaced 2 m apart, served as dispensers in the test plots. In both experiments, mean catches of C. nasturtii males in pheromone traps were reduced to near zero in treated plots, with control plots averaging 71 males/trap. In the large-scale experiments, no males were caught in pheromone traps over a period of 41 days after mating disruption was applied; one male was caught from days 42-60. In the small-scale trials, crop damage was reduced by 59 %, compared to the untreated control plot. In the large-scale experiments, damage was reduced on average by 91 %. This study shows successful field application of the mating disruption technique for control of a member of the dipteran family Cecidomyiidae, and demonstrates that pheromone-based mating disruption has potential for management of C. nasturtii populations.Journal of Chemical Ecology 08/2012; 38(9):1171-7. · 2.46 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This study describes the morphology and function of the antennal sensilla in two gall midge species, Contarinia nasturtii and Mayetiola destructor, where multi-component sex pheromones have been identified. Both species possess sensilla trichodea, s. coeloconica, s. chaetica and s. circumfila. Sensilla circumfila, which consist of several sensilla that bifurcate and fuse into one structure, are unique for the gall midges. In C. nasturtii s. circumfila are sexually dimorphic. In males, they form elongated loops suspended on cuticular spines, whereas in females they run like worm-like structures directly on the antennal surface. Single sensillum recordings demonstrated that olfactory sensory neurons housed in male s. circumfila in C. nasturtii responded to the female sex pheromone. In M. destructor, s. circumfila were attached to the antennal surface in both sexes, and displayed no response to sex pheromone components. A sexual dimorphism was also found in the number of s. trichodea per antennal segment in both C. nasturtii (male 1 vs. female 7) and M. destructor (male 13 vs. female 10). OSNs located in male M. destructor s. trichodea responded to the sex pheromone. This is the first gall midge single sensillum study, and the first demonstration of the functional significance of s. circumfila.Journal of insect physiology 04/2010; 56(9):1306-14. · 2.24 Impact Factor