Combined effects of repeated low doses of aflatoxin B1 and T-2 toxin on the Chinese hamster

ABSTRACT The aim of this work was to find out how repeated low doses of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and T-2 toxin would influen- ce the Chinese hamster and if the amplifying of these effects would occur with the application of both toxins together. The animals were treated with 10 ml/kg of 7% dimethylsulfoxid (DMSO) in the control group (C), 1.0 mg/kg of AFB1 in group A, 1.0 mg/kg of T-2 toxin in group T2, and 1.0 mg/kg of AFB1 + 1.0 mg/kg of T-2 toxin in group T2/A. All mycotoxins were dissolved in 10 ml/kg of 7% DMSO. These doses were administered intragastrically twice a week for a period of three weeks. General health condition, histological picture of some internal organs, some biochemical blood serum indicators of liver and kidney functions, and leucogram were monitored. No differences in prosperity or weight gains appeared during the course of the experiment. The histological examination did not show any changes in the investigated organs in any experimental group. On the contrary, differences were found in the biochemical blood serum profile. ALT and AST activities decreased significantly in T2/A group animals compared with the other medicated groups (T2 - 24.46 µkat/l; 45.18 µkat/l; A - 18.17; 41.84; T2/A - 4.74; 14.21). A similar decrease appeared in GMT activity as well, but it was significant only in comparison with the T2 group (T2 - 0.6 µkat/l; T2/A - 0.25). ALP activity was increased in the experimental groups compared with the control, significantly in the T2 group (C - 5.0 µkat/l; T2 - 6.92). LDH activity was lower in the T2 and T2/A groups, significantly when the T2/A group was compared with the A group (A - 94.05 µkat/l;; T2/A - 37.48). The cholesterol level was significantly increased in group A compared with the C and T2 groups. A smaller increase in the T2/A group was significant when compared with the T2 group as well (C - 3.05 mmol/l; T2 - 2.85; A - 3.59; T2/A - 3.27). Total and conjugated bilirubin concentrations decreased in group order A - C - T2 - T2/A, when differences among the A, T2 and T2/A groups were significant (T2 - 1.0 mmol/l; 0.36 mmol/l; A - 2.36; 0.85; T2/A - 0.69; 0.21). A glycemia decrease in medicated groups was significant in the T2/A group, while it approached a significant level in the T2 group (C - 10.46 mmol/l; T2 - 9.01; T2/A - 8.91). The main liver condition indicators seemed to be influenced by the T-2 toxin and AFB1 combination more than by individually applied toxins. We assume the amplification of the mycotoxin effects on proteosynthesis. The ALT activity especially was probably influenced more than in the additive manner. All the medicated groups showed a significant increase in the monocyte percent count (T2 - 9.8%; A - 9.62; T2/A - 8.85; C - 6.65). The differences observed in other leucocyte types were not significant. There were no differences in the effects of individual mycotoxins and their combination on the leucogram level.

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    ABSTRACT: Benzo[a]pyrene, 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene, 2-acetylaminofluorene, 2-aminoanthracene, and 1-aminopyrene, when fed to adult Drosophila melanogaster males, gave a negative mutagenic response in the X-linked recessive lethal assay. Benzo[a]pyrene was also ineffective in inducing "Minutes". Aflatoxin B1, EMS and DMN gave a positive response which was dependent on the concentration of mutagen fed. Whole fly homogenates prepared from adult Drosophila were assayed for mixed-function oxidase activity in the Salmonella/microsome test. Crude Drosophila microsomes activated 2-acetylaminofluorene, 2-aminofluorene, 2,7-diaminofluorene, 2-aminoanthracene, 1-aminopyrene, and aflatoxin B1. Tests with benzo[a]pyrene, pyrene, 1,2,3,4-dibenz[a]anthracene, and 7-12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene were negative.
    Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis 04/1981; 88(3):291-9. · 4.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The frequency of chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow cells, after a single i.p. aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) dose, was examined in male Chinese hamsters (Cricetulus griseus). There was a significant increase in aberrant cells within 5 days of administration of a dose of 0.1 micrograms-5 mg AFB1/kg, and on the 36th day. After a single dose of 5 mg AFB1/kg the enhanced frequency of aberrant cells was monitored up to day 104 with no sign of a decrease to control level. The results indicate that the minimum mutagenic effect of an AFB1 dose in this system is 0.1 micrograms/kg. Attention is drawn to the long-term presence of chromosomal aberrations even after a single i.p. exposure to AFB1.
    Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis 08/1990; 244(3):189-95. · 4.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: 1. Polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP), synthetic zeolite (SZ) and bentonite (BNT), when incorporated into the diets at 3, 5 and 5 g/kg respectively, were evaluated for their ability to reduce the deleterious effects of 2.5 mg aflatoxin (AF; 83.06% AFB1, 12.98% AFB2, 2.84% AFG1, and 1.12% AFG2,)/kg diet on growing broiler chickens from 1 day to 3 weeks of age. A total of 210 chicks were divided into 10 treatment groups (control, AF, PVPP, AF plus PVPP, PVPP plus SZ, AF plus PVPP plus SZ, PVPP plus BNT, AF plus PVPP plus BNT, AF plus SZ and AF plus BNT) each consisting of 21 chicks. 2. When compared to control, the AF treatment significantly decreased serum total protein, albumin, inorganic phosphorus, uric acid and total cholesterol, and the values of haematocrit, haemoglobin, mean corpuscular haemoglobin, thrombocyte counts, percentage of lymphocyte and monocyte counts; increased values of white blood cell and heterophil counts. 3. Decreased serum albumin caused by AF was significantly ameliorated by PVPP plus BNT. A similar increase was obtained in serum total cholesterol by adding BNT to the AF-containing diet. 4. The serum uric acid, white blood cell counts and percentage of lymphocyte and monocyte counts were numerically intermediate between control and AF values in all of the adsorbent treatments containing AF. The change in thrombocyte counts was alleviated by all of the adsorbent treatments containing AF, except AF plus SZ. The addition of the adsorbents in the AF-free diets did not significantly alter the serum biochemical and haematological parameters compared to controls.
    British Poultry Science 08/1998; 39(3):452-8. · 0.78 Impact Factor