Polypeptide transfer from Hsp40 to Hsp70 molecular chaperones.
ABSTRACT Heat shock protein 40 (Hsp40) co-chaperones assist in cellular protein folding and degradation through the binding and delivery of non-native proteins to heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70). The mechanism for substrate transfer from Hsp40s to Hsp70 is unknown. Two recent studies provide new details that shed light on novel mechanisms for substrate recognition by Hsp40s and a common mechanism for polypeptide transfer to Hsp70.
Article: Identification of Regions Involved in Substrate Binding and Dimer Stabilization within the Central Domains of Yeast Hsp40 Sis1.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Protein folding, refolding and degradation are essential for cellular life and are regulated by protein homeostatic processes such those that involve the molecular chaperone DnaK/Hsp70 and its co-chaperone DnaJ. Hsp70 action is initiated when proteins from the DnaJ family bind an unfolded protein for delivery purposes. In eukaryotes, the DnaJ family can be divided into two main groups, Type I and Type II, represented by yeast cytosolic Ydj1 and Sis1, respectively. Although sharing some unique features both members of the DnaJ family, Ydj1 and Sis1 are structurally and functionally distinct as deemed by previous studies, including the observation that their central domains carry the structural and functional information even in switched chimeras. In this study, we combined several biophysical tools for evaluating the stability of Sis1 and mutants that had the central domains (named Gly/Met rich domain and C-terminal Domain I) deleted or switched to those of Ydj1 to gain insight into the role of these regions in the structure and function of Sis1. The mutants retained some functions similar to full length wild-type Sis1, however they were defective in others. We found that: 1) Sis1 unfolds in at least two steps as follows: folded dimer to partially folded monomer and then to an unfolded monomer. 2) The Gly/Met rich domain had intrinsically disordered characteristics and its deletion had no effect on the conformational stability of the protein. 3) The deletion of the C-terminal Domain I perturbed the stability of the dimer. 4) Exchanging the central domains perturbed the conformational stability of the protein. Altogether, our results suggest the existence of two similar subdomains in the C-terminal domain of DnaJ that could be important for stabilizing each other in order to maintain a folded substrate-binding site as well as the dimeric state of the protein.PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(12):e50927. · 4.09 Impact Factor
Article: Central domain deletions affect the SAXS solution structure and function of yeast Hsp40 proteins Sis1 and Ydj1.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Ydj1 and Sis1 are structurally and functionally distinct Hsp40 proteins of the yeast cytosol. Sis1 is an essential gene whereas the ydj1 gene is essential for growth at elevated temperatures and cannot complement sis1 gene deletion. Truncated polypeptides capable of complementing the sis1 gene deletion comprise the J-domain of either Sis1 or Ydj1 connected to the G/F region of Sis1 (but not Ydj1). Sis1 mutants in which the G/F was deleted but G/M maintained were capable of complementing the sis1 gene deletion. To investigate the relevance of central domains on the structure and function of Ydj1 and Sis1 we prepared Sis1 constructs deleting specific domains. The mutants had decreased affinity for heated luciferase but were equally capable of stimulating ATPase activity of Hsp70. Detailed low resolution structures were obtained and the overall flexibility of Hsp40 and its mutants were assessed using SAXS methods. Deletion of either the G/M or the G/M plus CTDI domains had little impact on the quaternary structure of Sis1 analyzed by the SAXS technique. However, deletion of the ZFLR-CTDI changed the relative position of the J-domains in Ydj1 in such a way that they ended up resembling that of Sis1. The results revealed that the G/F and G/M regions are not the only flexible domains. All model structures exhibit a common clamp-like conformation. Our results suggest that the central domains, previously appointed as important features for substrate binding, are also relevant keeping the J-domains in their specific relative positions. The clamp-like architecture observed seems also to be favorable to the interactions of Hsp40 with Hsp70.BMC Structural Biology 01/2011; 11:40. · 2.48 Impact Factor
Article: The Molecular Chaperone Hsp70 Family Members Function by a Bidirec- tional Heterotrophic Allosteric Mechanism[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The Hsp70 family is one of the most important and conserved molecular chaperone families. It is well docu-mented that Hsp70 family members assist many cellular processes involving protein quality control, as follows: protein folding, transport through membranes, protein degradation, escape from aggregation, intracellular signaling, among sev-eral others. The Hsp70 proteins act as a cellular pivot capable of receiving and distributing substrates among the other mo-lecular chaperone families. Despite the high identity of the Hsp70 proteins, there are several homologue Hsp70 members that do not have the same role in the cell, which allow them to develop and participate in such large number of activities. The Hsp70 proteins are composed of two main domains: one that binds ATP and hydrolyses it to ADP and another which directly interacts with substrates. These domains present bidirectional heterotrophic allosteric regulation allowing a fine regulated cycle of substrate binding and release. The general mechanism of the Hsp70s cycle is under the control of ATP hydrolysis that modulates the low (ATP-bound state) and high (ADP-bound state) affinity states of Hsp70 for substrates. An important feature of the Hsp70s cycle is that they have several co-chaperones that modulate their cycle and that can also interact and select substrates. Here, we review some known details of the bidirectional heterotrophic allosteric mechanism and other important features for Hsp70s regulating cycle and function.Protein and Peptide Letters 01/2011; 18:132-142. · 1.94 Impact Factor