Americans frequently eat fast foods, but do college students? The objective was to determine the influence of sex on fast-food consumption and nutrition self-assessments and beliefs of a group of college students. The hypothesis was that some sex differences would be observed. Volunteers, 101 men and 158 women, 19 to 24 years of age, enrolled at a Midwestern university served as subjects. The subjects completed a 12-item written questionnaire. Five and seven percent of the students typically ate lunch and dinner, respectively, at a fast-food restaurant. The predominant reasons given for eating at fast-food restaurants were "limited time," "enjoy taste," "eat with family/friends," and "inexpensive and economical." A larger (P = .0592) percentage of men than women reported eating at fast-food restaurants because they thought these restaurants were "inexpensive and economical." Most of the subjects reported eating at fast-food restaurants 1 to 3 times weekly. The frequency of eating at fast-food restaurants was significantly different for men than for women (P < .01) as was the response distribution for considering the energy content of items on a fast-food menu when making their selections (P < .0001). Body mass indices of men were significantly higher (P < .0001) than those of women. A significantly higher (P < .0001) percentage of women than men strongly agreed with the statement that "the nutrition content of food is important to me." Several sex differences were observed in the fast-food consumption and nutrition beliefs of these college students.
"In addition, based on studied suggesting that people eat less healthily (deCastro, 1991; Rhodes, Cleveland, Murayi, & Moshfegh, 2007) and engage in more sedentary behavior (Lake et al., 2009) on weekends vs. weekdays, we accounted for days of the week in our analyses. Finally, in line with the literature pointing to gender differences in dietary habits (Beardsworth et al., 2002; Bonds-Raacke, 2006; Morse & Driskel, 2009; Prattala et al., 2007; Savoca & Miller, 2001; Wardle et al., 1994) and exercise (Darlow & Xu, 2011; Shifren, Bauserman, & Carter, 1993; Treiber et al., 1991), we explore the possibility of gender differences for both hypotheses. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Both social and individual factors play a role in shaping one's diet and exercise habits. A total of 62 heterosexual couples reported on health behavior values (HBVs) and completed daily diaries assessing food intake and physical activity relative to their own normal behavior and the helpfulness of health-related influence from their partners. Repeated measures dyadic analysis showed that men in couples with high average HBV ate less than usual in response to positive partner influence. Also, in such couples, normal weight men engaged in more physical activity when positively influenced by their partners. However, normal weight men in couples with low average HBV engaged in less physical activity when influenced by their partners. Women who valued health less than their partners responded to partner influence by eating healthier. These results highlight the importance of considering both social and individual contributors to health behaviors.
Journal of Social and Personal Relationships 12/2013; 30(8):1000-1019. DOI:10.1177/0265407513479214 · 1.29 Impact Factor
"Further, adverse social factors such as loneliness , psychological factors such as depression [11,12], and medical factors such as poor dentition  may also cause undernutrition in older adults. In young adults, contributing factors include skipping breakfast [14,15], relying on fast food [16,17], and dieting to achieve a thin body [18,19]. In particular, university students living away from home and those who have a sedentary lifestyle are at a higher risk of poor nutrition than students who live at home and participate in sporting activities . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chlorella, a unicellular green alga that grows in fresh water, contains high levels of proteins, vitamins, minerals, and dietary fibers. Some studies have reported favorable immune function-related effects on biological secretions such as blood and breast milk in humans who have ingested a chlorella-derived multicomponent supplement. However, the effects of chlorella-derived supplement on mucosal immune functions remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether chlorella ingestion increases the salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) secretion in humans using a blind, randomized, crossover study design.
Fifteen men took 30 placebo and 30 chlorella tablets per day for 4 weeks separated by a 12-week washout period. Before and after each trial, saliva samples were collected from a sterile cotton ball that was chewed after overnight fasting. Salivary SIgA concentrations were measured using ELISA.
Compliance rates for placebo and chlorella ingestions were 97.0 ± 1.0% and 95.3 ± 1.6%, respectively. No difference was observed in salivary SIgA concentrations before and after placebo ingestion (P = 0.38). However, salivary SIgA concentrations were significantly elevated after chlorella ingestion compared to baseline (P < 0.01). No trial × period interaction was identified for the saliva flow rates. Although the SIgA secretion rate was not affected by placebo ingestion (P = 0.36), it significantly increased after 4-week chlorella ingestion than before intake (P < 0.01).
These results suggest 4-week ingestion of a chlorella-derived multicomponent supplement increases salivary SIgA secretion and possibly improves mucosal immune function in humans.
"Especially, university students are likely to have frequent snacking, eating out, eating at night and overeating because of the tight or inappropriately planned class schedule, newly obtained independency and burden from study and workstudy . Because male students tended to discuss nutrition with their friends less frequently and hold less stronger beliefs related to nutrition , they might be more vulnerable to have undesirable beverage consumption pattern compared to females. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Because excessive consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages may reduce the quality of nutritional intake, this study examined the consumption patterns of commercial beverages, lifestyle, dietary habits, and perception of sweet taste. Participants were 407 male university students in Kyeonggido, Korea, and information was collected by self-administered questionnaire. Among them, 58 nonsmokers volunteered to participate in the taste test. Participants were divided into three groups according to the frequency of commercial beverage consumptions: 120 rare (< 1 serving/week), 227 moderate (1-3 servings/week) and 133 frequent (> 3 servings/week) consumption groups. More subjects from the rare consumption group chose water, tea, and soy milk, and more from the frequent consumption group chose carbonated soft drinks and coffee (P = 0.031) as their favorite drinks. Frequent consumption group consumed fruit juice, coffee, and sports and carbonated soft drinks significantly more often (P = 0.002, P = 0.000, P = 0.000, respectively), but not milk and tea. Frequent consumption group consumed beverages casually without a specific occasion (P = 0.000) than rare consumption group. Frequent drinking of commercial beverages was associated with frequent snacking (P = 0.002), meal skipping (P = 0.006), eating out (P = 0.003), eating delivered foods (P = 0.000), processed foods (P = 0.001), and sweets (P = 0.002), and drinking alcoholic beverages (P = 0.029). Frequent consumption group tended to have a higher threshold of sweet taste without reaching statistical significance. The results provide information for developing strategies for evidence-based nutrition education program focusing on reducing consumption of unnecessary sugar-sweetened commercial beverages.
Nutrition research and practice 04/2011; 5(2):124-31. DOI:10.4162/nrp.2011.5.2.124 · 1.44 Impact Factor
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