Abusive Head Trauma

Department of Pediatrics, Kempe Child Protection Team, The Children's Hospital, 13123 E. 16th Avenue, Box 138, Denver, CO 80045, USA.
Pediatric Clinics of North America (Impact Factor: 2.12). 05/2009; 56(2):317-31. DOI: 10.1016/j.pcl.2009.02.001
Source: PubMed


Child physical abuse that results in injury to the head or brain has been described using many terms, including battered child syndrome, whiplash injuries, shaken infant or shaken impact syndrome, and nonmechanistic terms such as abusive head trauma or nonaccidental trauma. These injuries sustained by child abuse victims are discussed in detail in this article, including information about diagnosis, management and outcomes. The use of forensics, the use imaging studies, and associated injuries are also detailed.

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    ABSTRACT: Abusive head trauma (AHT) has greater mortality and morbidity than any other form of physical abuse. Therefore, early recognition and accurate diagnosis are essential for comprehensive investigation and appropriate treatment of infants who present with this devastating traumatic injury. Advanced practice nurses need to have a thorough understanding of AHT in order to promptly and accurately assess and manage these infants. Using a case-based approach, the epidemiology, pathophysiology, mechanisms of injury, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of AHT are described. This article also discusses AHT prevention and implications for advanced practice nurses caring for these patients.
    Advanced emergency nursing journal 01/2009; 31(4):277-86. DOI:10.1097/TME.0b013e3181bd785d
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    ABSTRACT: As knowledge about child abuse and neglect increases worldwide, so does the literature on abuse and neglect. The authors explore many studies published this year, with attention to the advances in understanding which are guiding prevention efforts as well as diagnosis and treatment of abuse and neglect. The evidence base for many forms of child abuse continues to grow. Controversy around the diagnosis of child abuse still continues, with current debate focused on the diagnosis of abusive head injury and whether children with vitamin D deficiency are misdiagnosed with abusive fractures. As clinicians begin to understand the factors which may increase child vulnerability to abuse, more sophisticated and focused prevention efforts are being implemented, and researchers are evaluating these efforts with an eye to whether or not they really contribute to prevention. The short-term and long-term impact of child maltreatment is significant not only for individuals but for families and communities in which abuse is taking place. General pediatricians have an important role to play with families and in the community as advocates for the protection of children. However, it is clear that specialists in child abuse should also play a role in order for diagnosis and management of abuse to adhere to a high standard of care. This has been validated this year by the creation of Child Abuse Pediatrics as a board certified specialty in the United States. As knowledge about abuse and neglect grows, clinicians are focusing on prevention as well as diagnosis and treatment.
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study is to evaluate the outcome of young children hospitalized for non-accidental head trauma in our PICU, to evaluate PRISM II score in this sub-population of pediatric trauma and to identify factors that might influence the short-term outcome. Files of all children less than 2 years old with the diagnosis of non-accidental head trauma over a 10-years period were systematically reviewed. We collected data on demographic information, medical history, clinical status, and management in the PICU. Three severity scores were then calculated: PRISM II, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), and Pediatric Trauma Score (PTS). Prognosis value of qualitative variables was tested with a univariate procedure analysis (anemia, diabetes insipidus...). Then, quantitative variables were tested with univariate procedure too (age, weight, PRISM II, GCS, Platelet count, fibrin, prothrombin time (PT)...). Potential association between variables and death was tested using univariate procedure. Variables identified by univariate analysis were then analyzed with multivariate analysis through a forward-stepping logistic regression. Thirty-six children were included. Mean age was 5.5 months (8 days-21.5 months). Mortality rate was 27.8%. At admission, PTS, PRISM II, GCS, PT, PTT, and diabetes insipidus were significantly altered or more frequent in non survivors. Cutoff value for PRISM II at which risk of mortality increased was 17.5 (sensitivity = 0.8; specificity = 0.88). PRISM II is a reliable and easy performing tool for assessing the prognosis of non-accidental cranial traumatism in young children. GCS and PTS, scores even simpler than PRISM II, showed good accuracy regarding survival prediction.
    Child s Nervous System 05/2010; 26(11):1555-61. DOI:10.1007/s00381-010-1150-x · 1.11 Impact Factor
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