Antiretroviral medications during pregnancy for therapy or prophylaxis.
ABSTRACT The use of combination antiretroviral therapy during pregnancy has enabled us to decrease perinatal HIV transmission to less than 1%, in areas with adequate resources. Questions remain regarding the safety of these medications for the mother, fetus, and child. Recent publications present conflicting data about associations between antiretrovirals and prematurity and other adverse pregnancy outcomes, and if highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is necessary for all pregnant women. The pharmacokinetics of some antiretroviral medications are altered significantly during pregnancy; placental transfer to the fetus is variable. The well-documented benefit of HAART for preventing mother-to-child transmission generally outweighs the potential risks to the fetus, infant, and mother. However, potential adverse effects are of concern, and questions remain as to the optimal treatment strategy. More data on the effects of antiretrovirals during pregnancy are needed.
SourceAvailable from: Christie J Rizzo[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Although many factors contribute to racial disparities in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS among young African Americans, knowledge is a particularly modifiable factor. However, little information has been published about the current HIV knowledge of African American teens or to what extent knowledge independently contributes to their sexual behavior and health. This study aimed to describe the level of knowledge among this at-risk population and determine whether knowledge contributes to variance in sexual behavior and health beyond that of sociodemographic and psychological factors. African American adolescents (n = 1658) were recruited in 2 northeastern and 2 southeastern US cities (74% eligible for free or reduced-price school lunch). Analyses utilized data gathered from adolescents using an audio computer-assisted self-interview program. On average, participants answered only 50% of HIV knowledge items correctly and were least accurate concerning effective condom use and HIV testing. Controlling tor associated sociodemographic and psychological factors, greater knowledge was associated with sexual experience and, among experienced adolescents, with sexually transmitted infection/HIV testing and--unexpectedly--less condom use. HIV knowledge, which is modifiable, is limited among at-risk African American adolescents and is an important contributor to sexual behavior and health. Findings indicate a need for more comprehensive HIV/AIDS education, particularly with regard to condom use and the benefits of routine sexually transmitted infection/HIV testing. Although knowledge might not be sufficiently protective in and of itself, having accurate information about HIV may benefit sexual health by impacting health-promoting attitudes necessary for successful engagement in health care-seeking behavior.Journal of the National Medical Association 12/2010; 102(12):1173-82. · 0.91 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Substance use during pregnancy is a major public health concern. This study examined differences in substance use among pregnant women from rural and urban areas. Participants were 114 pregnant women entering a hospital-based inpatient detoxification unit primarily for Opiate Dependence who voluntarily agreed to a face-to-face interview. Substance use measures were based on the Addiction Severity Index gathering information about lifetime, past 12 months, and 30 days prior to admission. Rural pregnant women had higher rates of illicit opiate use, illicit sedative/benzodiazepine use, and injection drug use (IDU) in the 30 days prior to admission. Additionally, a greater proportion of rural pregnant women reported the use of multiple illegal/illicit substances in the 30 days prior to entering detoxification. More specifically, pregnant women from rural areas were 8.4 times more likely to report illicit opiate use, 5.9 times more likely to report IDU, 3.3 times more likely to report illicit sedative/benzodiazepine use, and 2.8 times more likely to report the use of multiple illegal/illicit substances in the 30 days prior to entering inpatient detoxification, after adjustment for socio-demographic characteristics (including education and income), pregnancy characteristics, physical and mental health indicators, and criminal justice system involvement. The increased rates of prescription opiate and benzodiazepine use as well as IDU among rural pregnant women are concerning. In order to begin to understand the elevated rates of substance abuse among rural pregnant women, substance use must be considered within the context of demographic, geographic, social, and economic conditions of the region. (Am J Addict 2010;00:1–7)American Journal on Addictions 09/2010; 19(6):467 - 473. DOI:10.1111/j.1521-0391.2010.00079.x · 1.74 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The impact of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on the natural history of HIV-1 infection has resulted in dramatic reductions in disease-associated morbidity and mortality. Additionally, the epidemiology of HIV-1 infection worldwide is changing, as women now represent a substantial proportion of infected adults. As more highly effective and tolerable antiretroviral regimens become available, and as the prevention of mother-to-child transmission becomes an attainable goal in the management of HIV-infected individuals, more and more HIV-positive women are choosing to become pregnant and have children. Consequently, it is important to consider the efficacy and safety of antiretroviral agents in pregnancy. Protease inhibitors are a common class of medication used in the treatment of HIV-1 infection and are increasingly being used in pregnancy. However, several studies have raised concerns regarding pharmacokinetic alterations in pregnancy, particularly in the third trimester, which results in suboptimal drug concentrations and a theoretically higher risk of virologic failure and perinatal transmission. Drug level reductions have been observed with each individual protease inhibitor and dose adjustments in pregnancy are suggested for certain agents. Furthermore, studies have also raised concerns regarding the safety of protease inhibitors in pregnancy, particularly as they may increase the risk of pre-term birth and metabolic disturbances. Overall, protease inhibitors are safe and effective for the treatment of HIV-infected pregnant women. Specifically, ritonavir-boosted lopinavir- and atazanavir-based regimens are preferred in pregnancy, while ritonavir-boosted darunavir- and saquinavir-based therapies are reasonable alternatives. This paper reviews the use of protease inhibitors in pregnancy, focusing on pharmacokinetic and safety considerations, and outlines the recommendations for use of this class of medication in the HIV-1-infected pregnant woman.Drugs 03/2013; 73(3):229-47. DOI:10.1007/s40265-013-0017-3 · 4.13 Impact Factor