Posttraumatic growth in cancer patients and partners--effects of role, gender and the dyad on couples' posttraumatic growth experience.

Department of Psychiatry, University Hospital of Zurich, Switzerland.
Psycho-Oncology (Impact Factor: 4.04). 05/2009; 19(1):12-20. DOI: 10.1002/pon.1486
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Little is known about factors influencing positive effects in couples facing a cancer diagnosis.
A heterogeneous sample of 224 couples from a multi-site study (four oncology units) completed questionnaire surveys including the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI) as a measure of positive psychological effects.
The data demonstrated that all three investigated factors--gender, role (patient vs partner) and the dyad (belonging to any of the 224 couples)--significantly contributed to variation in PTGI total scores and subscales. Variability between couples (factor dyad) appeared stronger than variability between patient and partner participants (factor role) and between male and female participants (factor gender). Role and gender analysis showed that patients demonstrated higher levels of posttraumatic growth than partners; and female participants scored higher on PTGI than males. Male patient-female partner pairs show greater association in their experience of posttraumatic growth than female patient-male partner pairs. Correlations also suggested that, regardless of the gender and role composition, patients and partners may experience parallel growth.
Our findings indicate that positive psychological experiences may be shared by partners affected by cancer in similar ways as have been shown for negative psychological effects. Intra-couple similarities or processes may have a more important function in experiencing benefits than factors like gender or being the patient or the partner. These results underline the importance of a family approach to understanding negative and positive psychological effects of cancer.

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    ABSTRACT: Understanding posttraumatic growth (PTG) and the factors associated with PTG among cancer survivors is important to improve their quality of life. This study examined PTG among 225 Korean adolescents and young adults between 15 years and 39 years of age who survived childhood cancer (58.5% males and 41.5% females). We explored the relationships between PTG and several sociodemographic and medical variables, and whether the relationships between PTG and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms were linear or curvilinear. The Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale (PDS) and the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI) were used to assess PTSD symptoms and PTG, respectively. In addition to the effects of sociodemographic and medical variables, there were linear effects of PDS on PTGI (R2 change = .03, p = .008). No evidence of a curvilinear relationship between PDS and PTGI was found. Higher PDS scores were associated with lower PTGI scores (β = −.18). Older age (β = .41) and shorter time since diagnosis (β = −.42) were associated with greater PTGI. Understanding the factors that were associated with PTG among Korean adolescent and young adult survivors of cancer adds to the knowledge on PTG and may help develop services to promote PTG in this group.ResumenLa comprensión del crecimiento postraumático (CPT) y los factores asociados a éste entre los sobrevivientes al cáncer es importante para mejorar su calidad de vida. Este estudio examinó el CPT entre 225 adolescentes y adultos jóvenes coreanos entre 15 y 39 años de edad que sobrevivieron al cáncer en la niñez (58,5% hombres y 41,5% mujeres). Exploramos las relaciones entre el CPT y diversas variables sociodemográficas y médicas, y si las relaciones entre CPT y Trastorno por Estrés Postraumático (TEPT) eran lineales o curvilíneas. La Escala Diagnóstica de Estrés Postraumático (PDS) y el Inventario de Crecimiento Postraumático (PTGI) fueron usados para evaluar síntomas de TEPT y CPT, respectivamente. Además de los efectos de variables sociodemográficas y médicas, hubo efectos lineales de PDS sobre PTGI (cambio en R2 = .03, p = .008). No se encontró evidencia de una relación curvilínea entre PDS y PTGI. Los puntajes más altos de PDS se asociaron a puntajes más bajos en PTGI. (β = −.18). Mayor Edad (β = .41) y menor tiempo desde el diagnóstico (β = −.42) se asociaron a mayor PTGI. La comprensión de los factores que estaban asociados al CPT entre los adolescentes y adultos jóvenes coreanos sobrevivientes al cáncer aumenta el conocimiento del CPT y puede ayudar a desarrollar servicios para promover el CPT en este grupo.Traditional and Simplified Chinese Abstracts by AsianSTSS標題:童年癌症存活者的癌症後經驗:創傷後成長與創傷後壓力的關係撮要:創傷後成長(PTG) 和PTG相關因素的理解,對改善癌症存活者的生活質素來說是有用的。本文研究225名韓國青少年和成人(15至39歲,曾成功治癒童年期癌症,58.5%男性和41.5%女性)的PTG。我們探討PTG與社會人口統計學和醫學變量的關係,及PTG和創傷後壓力症(PTSD)症狀是否有着線性或曲線關係。創傷後壓力診斷量表(PDS)和創傷後成長清單(PTGI)分別評核PTSD症狀和PTG。除了社會人口統計學和醫學變量的影響外,PDS亦對PTGI有線性效果(R2改變=.03, p= .008)。但PDS和PTGI卻沒有曲線關係。較高PDS得分與較低PTGI得分有相連(β= -.18)。較年長(β= .41)和與診斷相距較短時間(β= -.42) 則與較多PTGI 相連。我們對韓國青少年和成人癌症康復者PTG的相關因素有更多理解,有助增加PTG的知識和發展服務去幫助這些人加強PTG。标题:童年癌症存活者的癌症后经验:创伤后成长与创伤后压力的关系撮要:创伤后成长(PTG) 和PTG相关因素的理解,对改善癌症存活者的生活素质来说是有用的。本文研究225名韩国青少年和成人(15至39岁,曾成功治愈童年期癌症,58.5%男性和41.5%女性)的PTG。我们探讨PTG与社会人口统计学和医学变量的关系,及PTG和创伤后压力症(PTSD)症状是否有着线性或曲线关系。创伤后压力诊断量表(PDS)和创伤后成长清单(PTGI)分别评核PTSD症状和PTG。除了社会人口统计学和医学变量的影响外,PDS亦对PTGI有线性效果(R2改变=.03, p= .008)。但PDS和PTGI却没有曲线关系。较高PDS得分与较低PTGI得分有相连(β= -.18)。较年长(β= .41)和与诊断相距较短时间(β= -.42) 则与较多PTGI 相连。我们对韩国青少年和成人癌症康复者PTG的相关因素有更多理解,有助增加PTG的知识和发展服务去帮助这些人加强PTG。
    Journal of Traumatic Stress 08/2014; 27(4). · 2.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Although research has shown that many cancer patients report positive life changes following cancer diagnosis, there are few data in the literature related to PTG in caregivers of cancer patients. However, the few studies available have shown that this kind of positive changes can also be experienced by family members. The aims of this study were to explore PTG in caregivers of cancer patients and to investigate correlations between the Posttraumatic growth, psychological status and QoL of caregivers and those of patients, taking into account also clinical and socio-demographic aspects. Methods: We enrolled 60 patient/caregiver pairs in the Department of Medical Oncology of the National Research Center "Giovanni Paolo II" in Bari. Both patients and caregivers were assessed using the following scales: Posttraumatic growth Inventory (PTGI); Hospital anxiety and depression scale; Short Form (36) Health Survey (SF-36); ECOG Performance Status. Clinical and socio-demographic data were collected. Results: Caregivers showed significantly higher scores than patients in the dimension of "personal strength." Furthermore, we found a significantly close association between anxiety and depression of caregivers with those of patients. Younger caregivers were better than older ones in terms of physical activity, vitality, mental health, and social activities. Although the degree of relationship with the patient has no significant effect on the dependent variables of the study, it was found that caregivers with a degree of kinship more distant to the patient have less physical pain than the closest relatives. Conclusion: Results of the present study show that caregivers of cancer patients may experience post-traumatic growth as the result of their caregiver role. It would be interesting to investigate in future research which factor may mediate the presence of post-traumatic growth.
    Frontiers in Psychology 11/2014; 5:1342. · 2.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine posttraumatic growth (PTG) in family caregivers of patients with cancer. Methods: Participants included 201 family caregivers of cancer patients who are treated at outpatient clinics and oncology wards of a university hospital and two general hospitals in Busan, Korea. The study instrument was the Korean version of the posttraumatic growth inventory (K-PTGI). Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics, t test, one-way ANOVA and Scheffe's test using the SPSS 21 for Windows. Results: The mean score of PTG was 3.10. The factor with the highest score was "Changes to self-perception" (3.15), while the one with the lowest was "Increase in spiritual interest" (2.88). There were significant differences in PTG, depending on age, religion, importance of religious life and perceived level of daily difficulties. Conclusion: Family caregivers also experience PTG when their loved ones are diagnosed with cancer. According to these findings, it is necessary to develop a spiritual nursing program to help family caregivers growth from the experience of attending patients with cancer.
    The Korean Journal of Hospice and Palliative Care. 03/2014; 17(1).

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