Bile acids: the role of peroxisomes.
ABSTRACT It is well established that peroxisomes play a crucial role in de novo bile acid synthesis. Studies in patients with a peroxisomal disorder have been indispensable for the elucidation of the precise role of peroxisomes. Several peroxisomal disorders are associated with distinct bile acid abnormalities and each disorder has a characteristic pattern of abnormal bile acids that accumulate, which is often used for diagnostic purposes. The patients have also been important for determining the pathophysiological consequences of defects in bile acid biosynthesis. In this review, we will discuss all the peroxisomal steps involved in bile acid synthesis and the bile acid abnormalities in patients with peroxisomal disorders. We will show the results of bile acid measurements in several tissues from patients, including brain, and we will discuss the toxicity and the pathological effects of the abnormal bile acids.
Article: Clinical, biochemical, and mutational spectrum of peroxisomal acyl-coenzyme A oxidase deficiency.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Peroxisomal acyl-coenzyme A (acyl-CoA) oxidase deficiency is an autosomal recessive inborn error of peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation due to a deficiency of straight-chain acyl-CoA oxidase (SCOX). The biochemical hallmark of this disorder is the accumulation of very long-chain fatty acids. Although some case reports and small series of patients have been published, a comprehensive overview of the clinical, biochemical, and mutational spectrum of this disorder is still lacking. For this reason, we report clinical information for a cohort of 22 patients with peroxisomal acyl-CoA oxidase deficiency and the results from biochemical and mutation analyses in fibroblasts of the patients. No clear genotype-phenotype correlation was observed. An intriguing mutation in the alternatively-spliced transcript encoding the isoform SCOX-exon 3II in a patient with normal expression of the transcript encoding the isoform SCOX-exon 3I, prompted us to characterize these two isoforms of human SCOX. The recombinant SCOX-exon 3I displayed activity toward medium-chain fatty acyl-CoAs and was not active with very long-chain fatty acyl-CoAs. In contrast, recombinant SCOX-exon 3II was capable of oxidizing a broad range of substrates, including very long-chain fatty acyl-CoAs. These results explain why this patient with a mutation in exon 3II of the ACOX1 gene, but with normal expression of exon 3I, was indistinguishable from other patients with peroxisomal acyl-CoA oxidase deficiency with respect to his clinical presentation and the biochemical abnormalities in his fibroblasts.Human Mutation 10/2007; 28(9):904-12. · 5.69 Impact Factor
Article: C-terminal interaction is essential for surface trafficking but not for heteromeric assembly of GABA(b) receptors.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Assembly of fully functional GABA(B) receptors requires heteromerization of the GABA(B(1)) and GABA(B(2)) subunits. It is thought that GABA(B(1)) and GABA(B(2)) undergo coiled-coil dimerization in their cytoplasmic C termini and that assembly is necessary to overcome GABA(B(1)) retention in the endoplasmatic reticulum (ER). We investigated the mechanism underlying GABA(B(1)) trafficking to the cell surface. We identified a signal, RSRR, proximal to the coiled-coil domain of GABA(B(1)) that when deleted or mutagenized allows for surface delivery in the absence of GABA(B(2)). A similar motif, RXR, was recently shown to function as an ER retention/retrieval (ERR/R) signal in K(ATP) channels, demonstrating that G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and ion channels use common mechanisms to control surface trafficking. A C-terminal fragment of GABA(B(2)) is able to mask the RSRR signal and to direct the GABA(B(1)) monomer to the cell surface, where it is functionally inert. This indicates that in the heteromer, GABA(B(2)) participates in coupling to the G-protein. Mutagenesis of the C-terminal coiled-coil domains in GABA(B(1)) and GABA(B(2)) supports the possibility that their interaction is involved in shielding the ERR/R signal. However, assembly of heteromeric GABA(B) receptors is possible in the absence of the C-terminal domains, indicating that coiled-coil interaction is not necessary for function. Rather than guaranteeing heterodimerization, as previously assumed, the coiled-coil structure appears to be important for export of the receptor complex from the secretory apparatus.Journal of Neuroscience 03/2001; 21(4):1189-202. · 7.11 Impact Factor
Article: The human bile acid-CoA:amino acid N-acyltransferase functions in the conjugation of fatty acids to glycine.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Bile acid-CoA:amino acid N-acyltransferase (BACAT) catalyzes the conjugation of bile acids to glycine and taurine for excretion into bile. By use of site-directed mutagenesis and sequence comparisons, we have identified Cys-235, Asp-328, and His-362 as constituting a catalytic triad in human BACAT (hBACAT) and identifying BACAT as a member of the type I acyl-CoA thioesterase gene family. We therefore hypothesized that hBACAT may also hydrolyze fatty acyl-CoAs and/or conjugate fatty acids to glycine. We show here that recombinant hBACAT also can hydrolyze long- and very long-chain saturated acyl-CoAs (mainly C16:0-C26:0) and by mass spectrometry verified that hBACAT also conjugates fatty acids to glycine. Tissue expression studies showed strong expression of BACAT in liver, gallbladder, and the proximal and distal intestine. However, BACAT is also expressed in a variety of tissues unrelated to bile acid formation and transport, suggesting important functions also in the regulation of intracellular levels of very long-chain fatty acids. Green fluorescent protein localization experiments in human skin fibroblasts showed that the hBACAT enzyme is mainly cytosolic. Therefore, the cytosolic BACAT enzyme may play important roles in protection against toxicity by accumulation of unconjugated bile acids and non-esterified very long-chain fatty acids.Journal of Biological Chemistry 10/2003; 278(36):34237-44. · 4.77 Impact Factor